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3.1 Principles of Development

Specific Principles of Development

(i) From general to particular - The basis of the principle is that the child develops from a general state, and that this development takes place in a particular direction. Initially, the child uses his whole hand as a unit, and he gradually learns to manipulate the fingers individually.
(ii) The cephaulocandal principle - Proponents of this view hold that the process of development has its start in the head. Even in the embryonic state, it is the head which develops first of all. The limbs and the torso develop after the head has developed. And, after birth, it is the head which the child first learn to move in various directions. He tries to lift up his head first of all, and learn to sit up and walk only subsequently.
(iii) The ProximodigitaS principle - According to the scientists adhering to this theory, the centre of the developmental process is the nervous system. They argue that it is the nervous system which develops first of all. After this, the organs nearest the nervous system - the heart, chest, elbow, etc., undergo development. Fingers and other relatively remote parts of the body develop after this.
(iv) Unified process - The notion of a child’s development does not imply bodily development only because the personality achieves maturity and completeness only when mental, emotional and social development also take place. A child who is eight years of age is physiological organisimic age according to which a child who is eight years of age in physiological terms may be twelve years from the view point of mental level. From the emotional viewpoint, the same child may be fourteen years of age. Hence, development is a concept which cannot be restricted within certain prefixed limits, it is a unified process.
(v) The principle of variation - The rate of development is never uniform. Development continues throughout life and varying rates because, in infancy, the rate of development or growth is quite rapid, whereas it slows down in a notable way during childhood. In adolescence its rate increases once again and . then the individual attains maturity. Besides, girls and boys, too, do not grow at the same rate. This difference is found not only between the two sexes, but also between individual members of the same sex.
(vi) A continuous process - The process of growth begins with birth and ends only with death.
(vii) Uniform patterns of development process - Scientists holding this view say that, in a race, the process of development is guided or determined by uniform patterns. Irrespective of whether an individual is bom in U.SA. or in India, his physiological, mental, emotional and linguistic development take place according to the same pattern.

Educational Importance of Principles of Development-

1. Feelings of expectation - The knowledge of developmental theories helps the teacher to know what should be expected from the child at various stages of development. If we expect adults, behaviour from child, his development will be blocked.
2. Opportunities of trials - What type of changes are being occurred among children; this knowledge can provide them right direction and by providing proper environment, their development can be done.
3. Determining the future behaviour - After seeing the various forms of development, children’s future shape of their development can be determined by the teachers and parents.

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