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Beginning of Modern Age

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Beginning of Modern Age : 1. The term ‘Renaissance’ means rebirth. The Renaissance began in Italy. 2. Leonardo da Vinci was a painter,...

Beginning of Modern Age :

1. The term ‘Renaissance’ means rebirth. The Renaissance began in Italy.
2. Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, engineer, scientist, philosopher, poet and singer. He is best known for two paintings. “The Last Supper” and “Mona Lisa”. Vince and his paintings had become the symbol of renaissance.
3. Michelangelo, contemporary to Leonardo, was another painter and sculptor in Italy. ‘The Last Judgement’ and the ‘The Fall of Man’ are his famous works of art in the world.
4. The credit for the invention of the Printing Press goes to Gutenberg and Caster. He made it in the ? first half of the 15th century. The first printed book was “The Gutenberg’s Bible”.
5. “Divine Comedy” was Written by a great author Dante.
6. Copernicus was a Polish scholar who lived in Italy for many years. He exposed that the earth rotates on its axis and makes motion around the Sun. The Christian condemned it as a heresy.
7. Galielo invented telescope and used telescope in his study of heavenly bodies.
8. Another scientist, Kepler from Germany, explained with the help of mathematics how planets move around the sun He set down the principle, or law, which governs these movements and described their path
9. Isaac Newton proved that all the heavenly bodies move according to the law of gravitation.
10. The process of circulation of blood, from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart was given by Harvey, an Englishman.
11. The Indian numeral from zero to ten reached to Europe through Arabs.

Discovery of New Lands:-
1. Columbs, an Italian sailor, sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered America continent in 1492. His trip was financed by Spain. Coulumbs thought he had reached India; so he called the island, ‘The Indies’.
2. In the 13th century, Marco Polo travelled from Venice to China and Japan.
3. In 1498, Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese sailor through Cape of Good Hope, sailed on.and reached Calicut (Kerla) in India.
4. Another Portuguese sailor, Magellan, travelled the whole world through sea route and proved that the earch is round.

Industrial Revolution:
1. Steam engine was invented by James Watt. George Stephenson developed steam engine.
2. The industrial revoluntaries started in England through textile industry in 1760.
3. Japan was the first country in Asia to industrialize. 
4. Government should not interfere with business and industry. This theory is known as ‘Laissez Faire’ or ‘let us alone’. The famous economist Adam Smith voiced this idea in his book called “The Wealth of Nations”. Adam Smith is known as the ‘Father of Economies’.

Revolutionary and Nationalist Movement:-
1. On 4 July 1776, in the Congress of Philadelphia, declaration of America took place and America became an independent country which was under Britain.
2. The French Revolution took place in 1789. The Father of the French Revolution is Rousseau, a great philosopher. He, in his famous book “Social Contract”, described about the slavery of human. He said, “Man born free, yet everywhere he is in chains”. The French Revolution was more world-shaking than the others. The French emperor Napoleon was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815. French Revolution brought ‘Equality’.
3. Unification of Germany came through the policy of ‘Blood and Iron’ by Bismarck in 1870.
4. Unification of Italy came through the struggle of Mazzini and Garibaldi in 1871.

Socialist Movement:-
1. Karl Marx and Engles were bom in Germany but spent much of their life outside Germany.. Both drafted the “Communist Manifesto”. Their view of socialism is called ‘Scientific Socialism’. Marx said, “The Worker have nothing to loose except the chains”. Karl Marx analysed the working of capitalism in his famous work “Daskapital” (capital). According to him, workers produce more ‘value’ than they get in the form of wages, the difference being appropriated by the capitalists in the form of profits. This, Marx said, constitutes the basis of conflicts in capitalist society.
2. The Second International of the Communists was attended by the Grand Old Man of the Indian National Movement, Dadabhai Naroji.

12. IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM

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