Bronze Age Civilization:

Some Important Facts About Bronze Civilizations:-

1. Emergence of Cities:- In about 4000 B.C. or about 6000 years ago the emergence of cities started. In human history, it is known as ‘The Urban Revolution.’
2. Use of Metal (Copper and Bronze):- In the world, the first metal in form of Copper was invented. The. first use of Copper started in about 4500 B.C. in Sumer in Southern Iraq. In course of time, man learned to mix copper with tin or zinc to produce the alloy called Bronze.
3. The Early or Bronze Age Civilizations:- By about 2500 B.C. (1) The Valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates in Iraq (Mesopotamia), (2) The Indus Valley, (3) The Nile Valley in Egypt and (4) The Hwang-Ho valley in China were the four civilizations.
(1) The Mesopotamian Civilization:- (i) Mesopotamian is the oldest of the bronze age civilization. It is watered in Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, (ii) The Potter’s wheel was first used in Mesopotamia. The trade between the civilizations of Harappa and Mesopotamia happened through sea routes.
(2) The Harappan Culture (Indus Valley Civilization):- The Harappan culture is not the oldest of bronze age civilizations. But it is the first known civilization of India. Its all facts are described in Chapter 3.
(3) The Egyptian Civilization:- Egypt is called the ‘Gift of the Nile’. The tombs of the kings of Egypt are called ‘Pyramids’. Another peculiar specimen of Egyptians architecture is the ‘Sphinx’, which is a mythological animal with the body of a lion and the head of man. The ‘Temple of the rising Sun’ is the most famous temple of Egypt in the world. The Egyptian kings were known as ‘Pharaos’.
(4) The Chinese Civilizations:- The first center of civilizations in China developed in the region of the river Hwang-Ho. This river is also called ‘The Sorrow of China’.

The Comparative Study of the Four Civilizations:-

1. Scripts:- Harappan’s script was ‘pictographic script’ which the historians have not yet been able to read and understand. The script of Mesopotamians is called Cuneiform Script. The Egyptians wrote in ‘Hieroglyphic Script’ and the Chinese script, a ‘pictographic script’ that is a, picture standing for a word.
2. The Calendar:- The calendar of Mesopotamia was lunar, based on the Moon, and like all other lunar calendars, it was incorrect. The calendar of Egypt was the solar calendar and was most accurate. The Chinese calendar was a combination of solar and lunar calculations. The scholar-of China could correctly foretell lunar eclipses.
3. Counting Systems:- Indus Valley peoples’ is the ‘Decimal System’ but Mesopotamians system was ‘Sexagestimal’.

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: Bronze Age Civilization
Bronze Age Civilization
DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET
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