A figure of speech is a word or phrase that has a meaning something different than its literal meaning. It can be a metaphor or simile that is designed to explain a concept. It can be a different way of pronouncing a word or phrase such as with alliteration to give further meaning or a different sound.
1. Alliteration - Repeating and playing upon the same letter. It is the use of words starting with or containing the same letter or sound Alliteration is common in tongue twisters. e.g. Glue baby gannets.
2. Anaphora - It is a technique where several phrases or verses begin with the same word or words.
eg. I came, I saw, I conquered Caesar Julius we Laughed, we loved, we sang
3. Assonance - It is the repetition of vowel sounds in words that are close together.
eg. slow progress over the cold plateau, killed, cold, culled.
4. Euphemism - It is a word or phrase that replaces a word or phrase to make it more polite or pleasant.
eg. to pass away (to die)
mentally challenged (mentally retarded)
letting him go (fired him)
5. Hyperbole - An exaggeration for emphasis or effect
eg. This story is as old as the hills.
I’ve told you a hundred times.
6. Irony - Using words where the meaning is the opposite of their usual meaning.
eg. It is a secret, so only half of Delhi knows about it.
A traffic cop get suspended for not paying his parking tickets.
7. Metaphor - Compares two unlike things or ideas
eg. She sailed across the room.
Time is money.
The world is a stage.
8. Onomatopoeia - A word that sounds like what it is describing ie. words which suggest their meaning
eg. buzz, click, splash, zoom, sizzle.
9. Oxymoron - Two contradictory terms used together
eg. free market
an honest thief
a poor little rich boy
10. Personification - Giving human qualities to non-living things or ideas.
eg. The flowers nodded.
Thunder grumbled.
11. Simile - Comparison between two unlike things typically using the word like or as.
eg. As wise as an owl.
Like peas in a pod.
As blind as a bat
12. Understatement - When something is said to make something appear less important or less serious.
eg. I won’t say it was delicious (referring to terrible food).
It is just a scratch (referring to a wound).
13. Anastrophe - The deliberate changing of normal word order for emphasis.
eg. Bright he was not (He was not bright).
She stared into the dog’s eyes deep and menacing.
(She stared into the dog’s deep and menacing eyes).
14. Antithesis - Used when two opposites are used introduced in the same sentence
eg. more haste, less speed
In peace you long for war, in war you long for peace.
15. Apostrophe - A figute of speech in which a thing, a place, an obstract quality, an idea, a dead or absent person is addressed as if present and capable of understanding.
eg. ‘O Freedom! Hear our cry !
‘O Judgement ! Thou art fled to grutish beasts.
15. Euphuism - An ornately florid, precious and mazy style of writing
eg. The fiery stars twinkled brightly in the pitch black sky.
Time hath weared me from my mother’s teat and age rid me from my father’s correction.
16. Paradox - A statement that apparently contradicts it self and yet might be true.
eg. I must be cruel only to be kind.
Her gentleness was too harsh to bear.
17. Periphrasis - Use of a longer phrase or many words where fewer would do.
eg. Her of factory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience (her nose was blocked)
18. Pun - Fun with words or the humorous use of words so as to emphasise or suggest its different meanings or applications.
eg. Is life worth living. It depends on the liver. It is all mind over matter - never mind, it doesn’t matter.
19. Zeugma - The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words when it is appropriate to only one of them or is appropriate to each but in a different way.
eg. On his fishing trip he caught three trout and a cold.
He held his tongue and his promise
20. Thetorical question - A question asked for effect or to convey information rather than to elicit an answer.
eg. Isn’t it a lovely day (= It is a lovely day)
What is so rare as a day in June (= Nothing is rare in any day of June)

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Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS: Figure of Speech
Figure of Speech
Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS
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