Branches of Government:- Like every government, the Indian Government also has three branches. 1. The body which legislates or makes laws is called the ‘Legislature’. In India, we call it ‘Parliament’ Parliament consists of Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the President. 2.The President, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet from the ‘Executive Branch’ our government. 3.Those who decide disputes according to these laws, constitute the ‘Judiciary. The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court the High Court and the Lower Courts.

Types of Government:
1. Parliamentary Form of Government:- India has a Parliamentary form of Government based on British Parliamentary System. All the Ministers remain under the control of the Parliament. If any legislation falls in the Parliament, all the Ministers (Council of Ministers including the Prime Minister) have to resign. This is called ‘Collective Responsibility’. The Prime Minister is the main architect of the policies of ruling Government, m the Parliamentary form of Government the Prime Minister is not directly elected by the people. He is selected the leader of the house by the elected Members of Parliament.

2. President Form of Government:-
(1) In the. President form of Government the President who is the head of the executive, is elected directly. Neither the President is a part of the legislature nor the Ministers. The President at his own will selects the Ministers which are called Secretaries. The United States of America has a Presidential form of Government.

3. Unitary Governments:-
Those governments in which all powers are vested in one single Central Government are called Unitary. The administrative units act merely as the agents of the Central Government.

4. Federal Governments:-
The Federal organisation remains on two levels—the Central Government for the entire country, and the state governments for smaller units. State government’are not created by the Central Government but by the Constitution. The Constitution divides the powers of the two governments. The constitution in such countries remains Supreme over both levels. In case of any dispute between the two governments the judiciary (Supreme Court) gives the final interpretation to constitutional matters.

The Central Government of India:-
Our Parliament has two houses. The lower house is called the Lok Sabha or the House of the people. Its upper house is called the Rajya Sabha, or the Council of States. Formally, fhe’President is the part of our Parliament. Parliament consists of all the three President, Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha.

I. Lok Sabha (The Lower House):-
1. The Lok Sabha is the more powerful chamber of the two houses of Parliament. The Lok Sabha cannot have more than 552 elected members. Out of these 530 members are representatives of people of different states and not more than 20 members come from the Union territories. The President can nominate 2 members belonging to Anglo-Indian Community if it does not have adequate representation.
2. Qualification to become a member of Lok Sabha:- Age 25 years, Citizen of India, Name in the election list, he should not be mentally unsound and bankrupt and should not be on a government post or post of benefit.
3. Maximum Number of 80 members are elected from Uttar Pradesh. From Delhi 7 members are elected.
4. The duration of the Lok Sabha is 5 years.Only during the emergency it can be extended by one year
5. Since Independence fourteen Lok Sabhas have been constituted after the general elections of 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996 and 1998, 1999 & 2004.

The Speaker of Lok Sabha & Deputy Speaker:-
1. For conducting the business of Lok Sabha the members of Lok Sabha elect a speaker and a Deputy Speaker. Deputy Speaker does his work is the absence of speaker. Speaker does not take oath. He takes oath along with other members as a member of Lok Sabha, which is conducted by the senior most member who is known as Protem Speaker, elected in the present house. His term remains til! the term of Lok Sabha. He can rather resign before the end of the term.
2. He addresses his resignation to the Deputy speaker of the Lok Sabha. The Deputy speaker addresses
3. The joint session of the Parliament is presided by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The first Lok Sabha Speaker was Sh. Ganesh Vasudev Mavalanker.

II. Rajya Sabha (The Upper House):-
1. Its members are the representatives of the states. As India is a federal state, Rajya Sabha represents the states in the centre. The qualifications of a Rajya Sabha member are similar to those of the member of the Lok Sabha, except that the minimum age in 30 years.
2. Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha is a permanent house which can never be dissolved. An individual member of the Rajya Sabha has a tenure of 6 years at a time. But after every two years, one third of its members have to retire and as many as new members are elected.
3. It has 250 members. Of these 238 are representatives of states and Union territories, the other 12 are nominated by the President of India which are eminent in fields of literature, science, art or social service. Maximum number of 34. Rajya Sabha members come from Uttar Pradesh. From Delhi 3 members in Rajya Sabha are elected.

Chairman of Rajya Sabha:- The Vice-President of India is the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. It also elects a Vice-Chairman from among its members which presides in the absence of the chairman. The first chairman of Rajya Sabha was India’s first Vice-President Dr. S. Radhakrishanan.

Legislative Procedure:-
The main function of Parliament is to make laws. Lok Sabha has more powers than Rajya Sabha.
A. Ordinary Bills:-
1. The proposal of a bill is a called a bill. The ordinary bill can be introduced by either the Minister of the Government, or by any private member of the House. Whoever introduces the bill, it is considered several times in the house. If the bill gets a majority and is passed in the other house of Parliament, it goes to the President for his assent. When it gets his assent, it becomes a law.
2. In case of differences between the two houses regarding the bill, the President calls a joint sitting of the two houses. (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha). Such joint sitting is presided over by speaker of the Lok Sabha. Then the President gives his assent and the law is made.
3. After a bill is passed by both the houses of parliament, it is sent to the President for his assent. If the President is not satisfied with the bill he can send the bill back to the houses of Parliament asking them to reconsider it. Even if the bill is sent back to him without change, he must give his assent to it.

B. Money Bills:-
1. Money bills are those bills which have something to do with taxes or borrowing of money or expenditure of the government. Whether the bill is money bill or not this can be decided only by the speaker of the Lok Sabha. In respect of money bill powers of Lok Sabha exceed that of Rajya Sabha. Money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. The money bills can be presented by ministers only.
2. A money bill has to be passed by the Lok Sabha. Then it sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendation. Money bills are not sent to the Rajya Sabha for passing in the ordinary way. It sends its recommendation. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these suggestions which the Rajya Sabha has made. Rajya Sabha can keep the money bill with itself for 14 days. If the Rajya Sabha does not return the bill within 14 days, even then the bill is deemded to have been passed by both the houses. The money bill is not an ordinary bill.

Note:- Parliament controls over the Executive. Council of Minister is responsible to the Lok Sabha. No Confidence motion is a weapon to control the Executive. Parliament is the highest authority for Larw Making.

Some other important facts:-
1. Question Hours:- The first hour in both the houses is called question hour In these hours the members get information from the ministers. The ministers are bound to answer the questions
2. Zero Hour:- It is that part of the session in which questions which are one of the general agenda are raised.
3. Calling Attention Motion:- The members request the speaker to draw attention of the concerned minister towards the matter of public importance.

4. Adjournment Motion:- The members request the speaker to have a pointed discussion on a particular issue, if they consider that important.

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