Study Notes India

Study Notes India from 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. :

North India:- In the north, a number of foreigners came in waves between the years 200 B.C. and 100 A.D. These were Greeks (also called Indo Greeks), Shakas and Kushanas:-
1. The Greeks:- .After Ashoka Greeks invaded India and won Sind-Punjab. A great impact of Greek culture fall on Indian culture and they brought Greek Sculpture to India and thus India also adopted this Gandhar Style of Art. Indian astrologers achieved great knowledge from Greek astrologers
2. The Shakas:- After Greeks, the Shakas invaded India and over ran Western India (Gujrat-Malwa). They had come from Central Asia.
3. The Kushanas:-
(i) In 100 B.C. the Kushanas, who came from Central Asia invaded India. Kanishka was the most famous of the Kushan Kings. He started ‘Shaka Era’ in 78 A. D. in India. His capital was, Purushpur
(Peshawar). Kanishka had adopted Buddhism. He had worked for the expansion of Mahayana branch of Buddhism. Because of him Buddhism reached Central Asia. Kushana Dynasty ended in about 300 A.D.
(ii) During his reign (78 A.D. -118 A.D.) the Fourth Buddhist Council was held at Kundal Van in Kashmir which was presided over by Ashvaghosh.
(iii) In the art of sculpture there were Gandhara style, Mathura style, Nagar style and Raj Singh Style. Gandhra style was the mixture of Indo-Greek styles of sculpture. First Buddha’s statue was made through Gandhra style.
(iv). The Jataka Tales are the accounts- of the events happened before Buddha’s birth. There are many (549) stories about the Bodhisattvas in the Jataka Tales. The people who worshiped Bodhisatvas were called Mahyani.
(v). A very strong and brave tribe, ‘Hunas’ invaded Kushanas and Guptas.
(vi). In the kingdom of Kanishka there were two scholars and Medical Experts in Ayurveda, namely Charaka and Sushrut by whom two books Charak Samhita and Sushrut Samhita were written. These books belong to surgery.
(vii). The famous-dramatist, Ashavaghosha was contemporary to Kanishka.
South Indian Kingdoms of this age:-
1. In about 300 B.C. there were three kingdoms in South India-(i) The Cholas whose centre was Tanjore near Madras (Koromandal). (ii) The Pandyas whose centre was at Madurai and, (iii) The Cheras along the Malabar Coast or Kerala.
2. Our knowledge of these three South Indian kingdoms, is based on literature called the ‘Sangam Literature’. That time’s Tamil poems are called Sangam. Sangam Literature is in Tamil Language.
The Satavahanas:-
1. In South India most important Kingdom was the Satavahanas. One of their great ruler was the son of Gautami, Satakarni, who was described as the Lord of the West. He fought against the king of Kalinga. The Satavahana kingdom acted as a bridge between North India and South India.
2. In this ancient period on the west coast, the port of Broach (Gujarat) was used by ships coming from Persia, Iraq, Arabia and Egypt.
3. The Ajanta and Elora cave temples in Maharashtra which are related to Buddhist, started to built in the period of Satavahanas.
4. Arikamedu (Pondichery) near Madras was the famous centre of Roman Trading. Roman traders carried spices and birds and animals from here. Because of this exchange, India became very rich as we got a large quantity of gold from Rome.
5. This dynasty is also remembered for introducing lead coins.

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: India from 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. :
India from 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. :
DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET
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