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Kingdoms of Republics

Kingdoms of Republics (India from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.):


1. Bimbisara became the king of Magadha. He conquered the kingdom of Anga or Kingdoms of Republics.
2. Ajatshatru murdered his father Bimbisar and became the king of Magadha. It was his period in which Magadha was the most powerful kingdom in northern India.

Buddhism:-(Kingdoms of Republics)
1. In 563 B.C. the Buddha was born as prince Siddhartha in the Shakya tribe in Lumbani forest (Now in Nepal) near Kapilavastu. He left his home at the age of 30 and went into jungles for self mortification. The Buddha taught four noble truths, (i) There is suffering in the world,(ii) The suffering has a cause, (iii) The cause is desire, (iv) It is possible to put and end to suffering if desire is removed.
2. The Buddha stressed the importance of the ‘Middle Path’.
3. The Buddha rejected the authority of the Vedas.
4. He formed ‘Sanghas’ to spread Buddhism.
5. The monks and nuns made the ‘Doctrine of Panchsheel’ and ‘Ahimsa’ most popular. Buddhism spread over Central Asia, China, Tibbet, Japan, Korea, Sri Lanka. The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka helped to spread Buddhism widely in abroad.
6. Later on, the followers of the Buddha divided themselves into two sects, (1) Hinayana (2) Mahayana. The former school ( Hinayana ) laid emphasis on the salvation of the individual by directly observing the ‘Eight Fold Path’. The Mahayana school, on the other hand, started worshipping the Buddha as a god and stressed that salvation is open to all and not merely to monks and nuns.
7. Buddha died in 483 B.C. The event of death is known as ‘Mahaparinirvana’. After the death four Buddha Sangiti have taken place.
8. The event of leaving the home by Buddha is known as ‘Mahabhishkaramana’.
9. According to Buddha ‘Eight Fold Path’ is the right way to attain nirvana or freedom from birth and rebirth and cessation of suffering.
10. Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath at Mrigdab (Deer) Park. This event is known as ‘Dharm Chakra Pravartan’.

Jainism:-(Kingdoms of Republics)
1. Mahavira was bom in 540 B.C. at Kund Gram in Vaishali situated in Lichchhavis republic. His father’s name was Suddhodhan. He left home at the age of 28 in search of enlightenment. After 12 years he believed he had found the answers and were called jain. Before him 23 Tirthankars had been there in Jain religion. He was most famous of the Tirthankars and was 24th and last. He stressed on Tri Ratna’ (Right Faith, Right Knowledge & Right Action). These Tri Ratna are also known as ‘Three Jewels’. He was of the view that after Nirvana the soul would be made free and he would not be born again in the world.
2. The authority of the Vedas was denied by Mahavira who laid emphasis on Ahimsa
3. Later on, the Jains became divided into two sects:- (i) The Svetaambaras (those dressed in whites), and (ii) The Digambaras (Sky-clad or naked).
4. His childhood name was Vardhamana. The collection of his sermons are known as ‘Anga’
 

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Kingdoms of Republics (India from 600 B.C. to 400 B.C.)
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