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4.0 Psychology of learning

MEANING OF LEARNING :- Learning is the modification at behaviour through experience and training.

Features of Learning: -
1. Learning implies modification of behaviour.
2. Learning is the organisation of the behaviour.
3. Learning is the reinforcement of a new pattern of activity.

Learning process depends upon individual’s physical and mental health and his socio-economic conditions, it is also true that every action is not learning. E.A. Peel presented the following about learning.
(i) Learning is not a reflex action. It is acquired in environment, i.e., zipling eyes is not learning.
(ii) Learning is a conscious effort of socio-biological adaptation.
(iii) Permanent and temporary changes are being occurred through learning.
(iv) Learning may be right or wrong.


Learning and Maturation:- The process of learning continues throughout life. Man develops and grows only through learning. The basis of this development is maturation. The term ‘maturation’ implies awareness of a change in capacity or performance. This change depends upon practice or learning. Success in learning demands full physical and mental maturation as a necessary precondition. Maturation is a continuous process in human development. If children are taught any activity before they achieve the necessary maturation, the teaching proves fruitless.

Learning : Influencing Factors :-

  1. Suitable atmosphere
  2. Physical and mental health
  3. Learning method
  4. Motivation
  5. The Teacher’s role
  6. The Will to learn
  7. Maturation
  8. Working time and fatiuge
  9. Distribution of practice
  10. Structure of the curriculum :- If the curriculum is organised on the principle - ‘from simple to complex’ - it will definitely prove helpful in learning.

Learning Curve :- Skinner has used the term ‘learning curve’ for the diagram generated by data plotted on graph paper. In his own words, “A learning curve is a progress representation of person’s improvement (or lack of improvement) in a given activity.”
It clearly implies that the learning curve dist inctly indicates the extent of progress made by the learner in learning a particular activity.

Learning Curve :

Types :-
1. Negative accelerated curve - In this kind of curve, initially there seems to be more progress in learning process, but with increase in practice, the rate of progress slows down.
2. Positive accelerated curve - In this kind of curve, the rate of progress is slower, but, with increasing practice, the rate of progress in learning the given activity increases noticeably.
3. Combination type of curve - This type of curve shows slow learning first, then it shows rapid rate of learning and then progress of learning becomes slow.

Learning :

Plateau:- Defining the nature of the plateau in the learning curve, Skinner, says, “A plateau is a horizontal strech indicative of apparent progress.” This statement clearly indicates that, in the learning process, there comes a stage when it seems that no progress is taking place. This stage or situation is called the plateau.

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