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Religious and Social Reform Movements and Cultural Awakening

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social and religious reform that began to manifest itself from the early decades of the 19th century arose in response to the contact with Western culture and education.

Religious and Social Reform Movements and Cultural Awakening:

Hindu Reform Movements:-
1. Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahnto Samaj:- He was given the title of-Raja and sent to England by the Mughal emperor as his envoy. He formed Brahmo Samaj in 1828. Lord William Bentick abolished Sati System on the recommendation of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He supported to the introduction of English education in India. He is’known as the ‘Father of Modern India”. Keshav Chandra Sen founded Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj.

2. Young Bengal Movement and Derazio:- The Hindu College of Calcutta was founded in 1817 by Raja Rammohan Roy and a Scottish David Hare. A young man of 17, Henry Lui Vivian Derozio started “Young Bengal Movement”

3. Widow Remarriage and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:- He remained the Principal in Sanskrit College Calcutta. For his great learning he was conferred the title of ‘Vidyasagar’ He is considered the originator of modern Bengali. He personally took part in the first widow remarriage in Calcutta in 1856 He started a number of Bethune Schools for girls in Calcutta.

4. Prarthana Samaj:- The Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay by Mahadev Govind Ranade and Ram Krishna Gopal Bhandarkar. Ranade also founded the Indian National Social Conference.

5. Satyashodhak Samaj:- Jotirao Govindrao Phule, was popularly known as Jotiba. He founded the Satyashodhak. Samaj. Jotiba was given the title of ‘Mahatma’ for his work for the cause of the oppressed.

6. Ved Samaj- Ved Samaj was founded by Chembeti Sridharalu Naidu in Madras.

7. Emancipation of the Oppressed Movement:- Sree Narayan Guru in Kerla started a movement for the emancipation of the oppressed sections and he also founded the “Sri Narayana Dharma Faripalana yogam”.

8. Lokahitwadi:- A great reformer Gopal Hari Deshmukh was popularly known as ‘Lokhitwadi’.

9. Dayanand Saraswati and Arya Samaj:- The original name of the childhood of Dayanand was Mul Shankara. He was born in Kathiawar. He founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 in Bombay ‘Satyarth Prakash’ is his most important book. He founded the Gurukul at Haridwar. He gave a slogan- “Back To Vedas” He prescribed Shuddi movement (Purificatory Ceremony) for those Hindus who had been converted to other religions to reconvert them to Hindu.

10. Swami Vivekananda and the Ramakrishna Mission:-
i. Another important reformer of the 19th Century was Ramkrishna Paramhansa .He was a priest in a temple at Dakshineswar near Calcutta. He is popularly known as the Saint of Dakshineswar. Ramkrishna Mission was founded by his favourite disciple Vivekananda in 1896 A.D.
ii. Vivekananda was born in Calcutta in 1863. He participated in the All World Religions Conference at Chicago in the U.S.A. in 1893. His famous slogan was- “Awake-raise-go ahead until you get your destination”. He died in 1902.

Muslim Reform Movements:-
1. The Mohammendan Literary Society:- The Mohammendan Literary Society of Calcutta, founded by Nawab Abdul Latif was one of the earliest organizations to take steps in the direction of spreading the education among Muslims.

2. Syed Ahmad Khan and Aligarh Movement:- The most important movement for the spread of modern education and social reform among Muslims was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. The Syed Ahmad Khan established the Mohammendan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 A.D. This M.A.O. College, later on became the’ Aligarh Muslim University, a pioneer institute of education. The movement of Muslim awakening came to be known as the Aligarh Movement. He founded the Indian Patriotic Association also.

Reform Movements among Parsis:- Dadabhai Naoroji and Naoriji Furdoonji were among Parsi Community who led reform movement: Together, they started a journal, ‘Rast Goftar’. Dadabhai Naoroji is known as the ‘The Grand Old Man of India’. He had the honour to become the first ever Indian member of the British Parliament. Community founded Khalsa College at Amritsar.

Social Reform Acts:- An act was passed in 1891 aimed at discouraging child marriage. This law was passed at the instance of two Indian reformers, Keshav-chandra-sen and Beharamji Malabari. For preventing ‘child marriage, a more positive step was taken when the Sharda. Act was passed. According to this act a girl below 14 and a boy below 18 could not be married.

Education:-
1. An annual allotment of a lakh of rupees was provided for educational development by the Charter act of 1813 for the first time in India.

2. In 1854, the government declared its intention of “creating a properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the University. This declaration is known as “Wood’s Despatch”. Wood’s Despatch is known as ‘Magna Carta’ of Education in India.

3. In 1857, the Universities were founded in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.

4. Indian leaders formed a “National Council of Education” as a revolt against British control over eduaction. Dr. Zakir Husain founded Jamia Millia Islamia at Aligarh (which was later shifted to Delhi). Rabindranath Tagore established the Vishva-Bharti at Santiniketan near Calcutta. William Jones founded the Asiatic Society at Calcutta.

5. James Prinsep deciphered the Brahmi script in 1834.

6. Bankim Chandra Chaterjee was a famous writer of Bengali. He wrote ‘Anand Math’ and ‘Kapal Kundla’ works. Our National Song ‘Bande Mataram’ has been taken from Anand Math.

7. Bhartendu Harish Chandra was the pioneer of modern Hindi literature.

8. “Saare Jahan Se Acchcha” is known as composed by Iqbal,

9. Our National Anthem, ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was composed by Nobel Prize (first Indian to win Nobel Prize) Winner Rabindranath Tagore. National Anthem has been taken from his book Gitanjali. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Gitanjali in 1913.

10. Amrita Shergil, Nand Lai Basu and Satish Gujral are the painters of Modern India.

11. Motilal Ghose was the founder editor of the Amrita Bazar Patrika.

Growth of Science:-
1. Chandra Shekhar Venkata Raman got Nobel Prize for his work (Raman effect) in Physics in 1930
2. Sri Niwas Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematicians of our country.

3. During the period of British rule Dr Visvesvarya, Bharat Ratna Recipient of 1954 made his significant contributions to various branches of engineering and technology and construction of dams.

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Religious and Social Reform Movements and Cultural Awakening
social and religious reform that began to manifest itself from the early decades of the 19th century arose in response to the contact with Western culture and education.
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