The U.N.O:

After the end of First World War (1914-1918) with the efforts of American President Wilson, the League of Nations was set up for the purpose to solve the international disputes peacefully. Unfortunately, the League was not very successful to prevent the Second World War. So the United Nations was founded on 24 October 1945 immediately after the Second World War came to an end in place of the League of Nations. Initially 51 countries had signed its charter but now it has 191 members. The name UNO was proposed by American President Roswelt. A conference of fifty nations was convened in April 1945 at San Francisco in the United States of America. In this conference the charter of United Nations was prepared. Fifty One nations including India ratified the Charter on October 24, 1945. Since then the UNO day is celebrated on October 24 every year.
The charter was signed on June 26, 1945. The General Assembly adopted the Charter of Human Rights on 10 December 1948.

Six Organs of UNO:-(l) The General Assembly (2) Security Council (3) Economic & Social Council (4) Trusteeship Council (5) International Court of Justice (6) Secretariat.
1. The General Assembly:- The General Assembly is like the meeting of the World Parliament. Every member State can send a maximum of five representatives to the General Assembly but at the time of voting a state is entitled to cast only one vote. Mrs. Vijaya Laxmi Pandit has been the chairperson of the General Assembly.

2. The Security Council:- The Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. It has 15 members in all. 5 members viz. France, China, Russia, U.K and U.S.A. are. permanent members having Veto power. 10 other members are elected by the General Assembly for a duration of two years. This looks after world peace and security.

3. The Economic and Social Council:- It aims at solving international economic, social and health problems of women & children.

4. The Trusteeship Council:- It helps in the attainment of Independence to those territories which are under foreign rule.

5. The International Court of Justice:- The court decides disputes among its member nations. The court consists of 15 judges. These judges are elected by the Security Council and the General Assembly for a period of 9 years. Sh. Benegal Narisimha Rao and Dr. Nagendra Singh have been the judges from India here.

6. The Secretariate:- The Secretariate carries out day-to-day work of the U.N.O. Its administrative head is known as the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. At present its Secretary General is Ban-Ki-Mun of South Koria.

Other Agencies of the U.N.O:-
1. UNESCO:- The headquarter of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is at Capital of France, Paris. Dr. Radhakrishnan has been the chairperson of UNESCO.
2. W.H.O.:- World Health Organization has its head quarters in Geneva (Switzerland).
3. UNICEF:- United Nations Children Emergency Fund was set up in 1946. It works in the fields of health nutrition and education. Its headquarter is in New York (America).
4. I.L.O:- International Labour Organization was set up for the purpose to improve the conditions of labourers. Its headquarters are in Geneva.
5. F.A.O:- Food and Agriculture Organization has its headquarters in Rome (Italy). Its purpose is to fight the poverty, malnutrition and hunger in- the world. F.A.O. has declared the year 2004 as the International Year of Rice.
6. IMF:- The headquarter is in Washington (America). It provides loains to needy countries.
7. WB:- World Bank provides international financial assistance to the nations. Its headquarter is at Washington (America) in 1945. IBRD is another name of this bank.
8. IAEA:- International Atomic Energy Agency has its headquarter in Vienna (Austria).
9. IFC:- International Finance Corporation has its headquarter at Washington (America).
10. UNDP:- United Nations Development Programme has its headquarter at New York (America).

11. GATT:- General Agreement on Tariff and Trade has its headquarter at Geneva (Switzerland). In 1995, it has been renamed as World Trade Organisation (WTO).

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