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4.8 Transfer of training

Transfer of Training — Meaning :- In the class, the teacher imparts information to the child. In this process, the teacher invariable hopes that the child will apply this information or the activity he has learned in other circumstances also. In other words, he hopes that the training imparted by him will be transferred to other spheres. That is exactly what transfer of training of learning means. For instance, a child who has learnt mathematics uses this knowledge to solve many numerical problems in physics and chemistry. This process involves transfer of learning. Transfer means the application of acquired skill and knowledge to situations different from those in which they were acquired by learners.

Types of Transfer of Training

1. Positive transference - Positive transfer of training clearly implies that knowledge or experience acquired in the past assists in the solution of a new problem. For instance, the mathematics we learn in school helps us while we make our routine purchases from the market. Another even more explicit example can be seen when a person having knowledge of driving one kind of car starts driving a different kind of car without any additional training or practice.
2. Negative transfer- Negative transfer of training occurs when some past experience or knowledge creates a barrier in solving some future problem. For instance, a person familiar with one type of key board on a typewriter has to invest substantial effort in making himself familiar with a different kind of keyboard. Boring, Langfeld and Weld have put it in very simple words, “when one learning task makes learning a second task harder, we speak of negative transfer.”
3. Unilateral transfer- When the training imparted to one part of limb of the body proves useful in some future activity, it is a case of unilateral transfer. For instance, the practice of writing with the left hand proves beneficial in case a person injures his right hand.
4. Bilateral transfer- The phrase Tjilateral transfer’ refers to the case in which the training imparted to one limb of the body transfers itself to the parallel limb on the other side. For instance, if after being trained in writing or working with the right hand, children learn to write or perform the same activity with the left hand without any additional practice, the phenomenon is called bilateral transfer.
5. Vertical transfer- Vertical transfer can be either positive or negative. The knowledge which the children obtain in one class are employed in their studies in the next higher class. Similarly, the experience obtained in childhood are used by the individuals in performing many activities in adult life.
6. Horizontal Transfer- The term ‘horizontal transfer’ is used when the knowledge acquired in one subject helps the learner in learning another subject. For instance, knowledge of the historical facts of the Gupta period in Indian history helps the learn in understanding the literary and cultural trends of the same period.

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