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7.1 Theories of Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence:-

(1) Unitary or Monarchic Theory : - Ross says that, intelligence is inborn and innate. This theory accepted intelligence as a part of body. This is a central point which generates all the mental activities.
(2) The Two Factor Theory (Electic Theory) :- Spearman propogated this theory. According to him, there are two elements in intelligence - (i) general ability (ii) specific ability. General ability is applied in every intellectual activity, and it differs from individual to individual, since very individual differs from another from the viewpoint of mental qualities. As far as specific ability is concerned, it too, differs from individual to individual. It makes its contribution to the individual’s personal development and to the development of concepts.
(3) Multi-Factor Theory:- According to the theory, propogated by Thomdike, there is no such element as a general factor in intelligence. Intelligence is a compound of many factors, because any mental activity is performed by the collective functioning of many factors. It is for this reason that corelation can be found into mental tests.
Thomdike has sought to throw light on the nature of intelligence on the basis of theory of stimulus - response. His view is that the experiences, between which the relationship of stimulus and response is established, help the individual to solve similar problems in the future.
(4) Group Factor Theory :- It is held in this theory propounded by Thurston that intelligence is a collectivity, congregation, aggregate of many factors, which he calls the group factors : -

1. Primary factors - According to Thurston, the primary factors in intelligence are the following :
(i) Number - The ability related to numbers helps in solving numerical or mathematical problems.
(ii) Verbal compherension - This is helpful in the development of logical thinking, scholarly studies, knowledge of words, etc.
(iii) Space - This is essential for the perception of differences and distances, etc.
(iv) Word fluency - As a result of this ability, students develop capacity in the use of language,
(v) Reasoning - Though the medium of this ability, the student’s capacity of reasoning is tested.
(vi) Rote .nemory - This indicates the individual’s capacity for rote learning,
(vii) Perception

2. Secondary factors- This class included the following factors :
(i) Spatial ability - This is of use in discovering the special relations between objects.
(ii) Perceptual speed - This manifests the individual’s speed in understanding an object or seeing it, observing its similarity to other objects and comprehending its difference to other objects.
(iii) Associative memory - The ability to remember two associated experiences falls in the sphere of this ability.
(iv) Problem solving - In the context of this ability, the individual’s ability to solve new problem is tested.

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