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Personality & Its Measurement


8.1 Meaning and Charecteristics of Personality

Meaning of Personality :- Personality is the dynamic orgnisation within an individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his acquired dispositions.

Characteristics of Personality :-

1. Personality is the organization of psycho-physical conditions of the individual
2. Environment influences the personality.
3. It is the combination of innate and acquired tendencies of the individual.
4. Personality is the unique adjustment with environment.
5. It is the organization of structure and behaviour of the individual.
6. It includes all the aspects of individual’s life. 

8.2 Theories of Personality

Theories of Personality :-

1. Psychoanalytic Theory- The proponent of this theory was Sigmund Freud. According to him man’s personality is grimed out of the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego. These terms explained thus: Id regress to the general ego, ego is the individual’s ego and the super ego is man’s moral sense. Id is the unconscious mind in which man’s instincts and innate desires. These demand immediate satisfaction. The ego comprehends with it itself consciousness, power of taking decisions or determination, the intellect and reasoning. The super ego is formed or generated by ideals.
2. The Constitution theory - The proponent of this theory is Sheldon, who pointed out the following bases of personality.
(i) Endomorphy - Individuals having this kind of personality have well developed and rounded necks and well developed muscles. Increase in fatty tissues is a characteristic and distinguishing feature of this kind of personality.
(ii) Mesmorphy - In this kind of personality, the development of the bones and muscles is selective and restricted.
(iii) Ectomorphy - In the individuals with this kind of personality the muscle fibers of the central nervous system are well developed.
In school of thought, various parts and organs of the body are regarded as the basis of the formation of personality.
3. Factorial theory - The proponent of this theory, R.B. Cattell, has the following to say about the nature of personality : “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.”
Cattell opines that character is an amalgam of many factors. In his view, fineness of character which means emotional integration, is the product of sociability, imaginativeness, intuition, curiosity, carelessness and many other factors form the personality.
4. Allport’s theory - The theory of personality proposed by Gordon W. Allport is based upon heredity and environment. In his theory, Allport has emphasized the end for doing justice to the complex combination called personality which is determined by heredity. He also feels the need to do justice to temperament and social as well as psychological factors. At the same time, he has also stress the uniqueness of each person, which is found in many fashions in individual’s personality is determined by the determined of personality characterises and adjustment quality to environment.
5. H.A. Murray’s theory - Defining his view of personality, Murray has stated that, “Personality is continuity of functional forms and forces manifested through sequence of organised process and overt behaviour from birth to death.” According to this theory, the continuity of functional forms, negative and positive cathexis, relations, differences of opinion, state of activity, passivity, etc. combine together to determine personality.
This theory is open to some serious objection such as influence of invisible or unconscious determinates upon behaviour, the role of learning and state of level of motivation, which influence the personality and become the cause of its manifestation.

Personality: Influencing Factors :-

1. Somatic influences
2. Heredity
3. Environmental factor :- The environment influence personality in two ways :-
(i) Social environment
(ii) Cultural contact
4. Childhood experiences
5. School experience
6. Ductless glands

8.3 Types of personality

Types of Personality :-

1. Kretschmer’s Classification
(i) Pyknic - Individual with this kind of personality are sociable, friendly and good natured and have a tendency to mix easily with others.
(ii) Leptosome- These individuals are shy, weak, introvert and inclined to quietness. They prefer solitude to social contact.
(iii) Athletic- These individuals possess a healthy body and are inclined to be determined in their actions. They are decisive and usually very contented.
(iv) Dyspiastic- Such individuals are hefty, tall and inclined to obesity. They qualities of personality which they possess are a mixture of the qualities mentioned in the foregoing three kinds.

2. Endocrine Types of Personality:-
(i) Hyperthroid- Such individuals are very desirous and have a tendency to influence others.
(ii) Hypothyroid- Persons with this personality are lazy and from the mental viewpoint, usually feeble-minded.
(iii) Pituitary- Smiling, humorous, peaceful and tolerant individuals capable of bearing physical and mental suffering fall in this category.
(iv) Adrenary- These individuals mature before the proper time and they often exhibit abnormal features, for instance, women havingbeards and moustaches.
(v) Parathyroid- Individuals in this class are quarrelsome, aggressive, pugnacious and extremely short-tempered.
(vi) Gonard pyher- These individuals, too, are quarrelsome and pugnacious,
(vii) Gonards hypoactive - Persons of this kind are of equable temper, peace-loving by nature and inclined to take interest in art, literature music and cultural activities.

3. Spranger’s Classification:-
Spranger has divided personalities into six classes :-
(i) Theoretical - Philosophers, scientists and inventors fall into this class.
(ii) Economic - Individuals with this kind of personality attach more importance to money, hence this class consists of traders, businessmen, spokeepers etc.
(iii) Aesthetic - This class is comprised of artists, men of literature and other individuals devoted to the fine arts.
(iv) Political - People interested in or participating in politics and administration fall into this category.
(v) Religious - This class includes saints, priests worshippers, devotes, etc. who have deep faith in religion.
(vi) Social - People in this class are individuals who take deep interest in social activities.

4. The Classification by C.G. Jung :-
(i) Extrovert - The extrovert has a tendency to remain involved in worldly material activities and affairs. He tends to be social and to take special interest in social affairs. He increases acquaintance with others, takes interest in sports and games and pays little attention to his personal wealth or state of health. He achieves quick adjustment with new situations. His self-confidence is noticeable, almost overpowering. Though propaganda, publications or through his art of speaking, he is easily able to impose his views on to others.^Examples of this kind can be seen in such renowned personalities as Alexander, Napoleon, Nehru, Hitler, Shastri and Indira Gandhi etc.
(ii) Introvert - The opposite is the case with the introvert, most of whose attention is centred upon himself. Hehas little interest in worldly affairs or things. He is characterised by a tendency to isolate himself from material objects and situations, love of poetry, hesitation in expressing his views before others, dutifulness, ignorance of social behaviour, etc. Such an individual is deeply interested in, almost lost in himself. He likes to have as little conversation and contact with others as possible. He is easily saddened. Reading of books is one of his commonest habits. His behaviours possesses very little flexibility. He has more skill than the extrovert because, without caring for the world’s opinion he devotes himself to his own work and thus progresses rapidly along his chosen path.
(iii) Ambivert - Individuals of this kind exhibit the characteristics of the introvert in some situations and those the extrovert in other circumstances.
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