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Administrative Structure, Policies and Impact of British Rule(1765-1857):

Administration:- The territories under direct British rule were divided into three Presidencies- Bengal, Madras and Bombay. In 1835, British territory to Bihar was separated from Bengal and later Punjab was also made a separate province: To begin with, the administration of the British territories in India was entirely in the hands of the Company. The Company was facing a financial crisis at this time and had applied to the British government for a loan of one million pounds: The British government sanctioned the loan but found it necessary to regulate the activities of the Company in India and for this, the Regulating act of 1773 was passed by the British Parliament.

Regulating Act 1773:-
1. This was the first direct interference made by the British government in the affairs of India. Now all correspondence and documents regarding the civil, military and revenue affairs of the Company started laying before the British government.
2. The president of the Company’s Calcutta factory, who used to be the Governor of Bengal, was made the Governor-General whole of India.
3. A Supreme Court was set up in Calcutta.

Pitts India Act, 1784:-
This act made the Governor-General strong. Presidencies of Bombay and Madras were brought under his authority.
Organisation of the Civil Service:- It was Carnwallis who was the real founder of the Civil Service in India. The Indian Civil Services Examination (ICS) started from 1853 by Lord Dalhousie.

New Systems of Land Holdings and Land Revenue:-

1. Permanent Settlement:- We know that, the collection of revenue was the first privilege that the Company won after the battle of Buxar and in Warren Hasting’s time, the Company introduced in Bengal and Bihar the system of auctioning the right, of collecting revenue. The new system known as the Permanent Settlement was introduced by Cornwallis in 1793. According to it, the Zamindar of an estate became its owner as well. The Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, the coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh and Banaras.

2. Ryotwari and Mahalwari Systems:- Under Ryotwari system the revenue was fixed for a period of 30 years. The government collected the revenue directly from the Ryot (farmers). This system was introduced in Madras and Bombay. In Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi Mahalwari System was introduced. Groups of villages were called Mahals. Under this system a settlement was made with the Village Communities or Mahals.

Industry and Trade:

In 1853. the first railway was started from Bombay to Thane and in 1853 the telegraph was also introduced in India during the period of Lord Dalhousie.
Social Legislation:-
1. As the results of the efforts made by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in India Satidaha (Sati practice) was banned through a social legislation in 1829. This happened when William Bentick was the Governor- General.
2. British government passed the Widow Remarriage Act in 1856. Through the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. This legislation was passed by Lord Dalhousie.
3. In 1843, Lord Attenbrongh passed a law which made slavery illegal in India.

Beginning of Modern Education at First:-

1. The first educational institutions supported by the Company were the Calcutta Madrassa and Banaras Sanskrit College established in 1781 and 1791 respectively. According to the’Charter Act 1813, the Company sanctioned one Lakh of rupees for purposes of education in India. In India, the first education policy was introduced in 1835. On the recommendations of Lord Macaulay Raja Rammohun Roy advocated western learning. It was due to his efforts in 1835, the government decided in favour of the promotion of European Literature and sciences among the natives of India.

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: Administrative Structure, Policies and Impact of British Rule(1765-1857)
Administrative Structure, Policies and Impact of British Rule(1765-1857)
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