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The Rise and Growth of British Rule in India:

The Carnatic Wars:- The wars which took place between the English and the France are called the Carnatic Wars. There were three Carnatic Wars.


1. The first Carnatic Wars (1740-1748):- Carnatic was the area where the conflict first erupted between the France and the English companies. Dupleix was then the chief official of the French company at Pondicherry. This war was won by the French.
2. The Second Carnatic War (1749.1754):-. The French were defeated in this war. Robert Cliv clerk in the English Company, with a small army defeated Chanda Sahib. Dupleix was recalled France, the two companies concluded a peace treaty not to interfere in the Indian matters.
3. The Third Carnatic War (1756-1763):- But when the seven years war broke out in Europe, the French forces were defeated in Carnatic. The English replaced the French in Hyderabad and thus the French lost all their political possessions in India.

The British Conquest of Bengal-
The Clive, the chief of English army succeeded in getting the support of Mir Jafar, the commander chief of Siraj-ud-daulah and defeated the Nawab of Bengal in the battle of Plasi in 1757. Siraj-ud-daula was killed. They made Mir Jafar, the Nawab.

Result of Battle of Plassey:-
1. This battle of Plassey marks the beginning of establishment of British power in India and the English Company became the real power in Bengal.
2. Mir Jafar remained as their puppet. Mir Jafar could not satisfy the English by giving them enough money. Mir Qasim was made the Nawab of Bengal by the Company.
3. Mir Jafar was the last Nawab of Bengal who tried to be independent. He abolished the customs duties being collected from the Indian merchants. This step angered the English Company and in 1763 in the battle, he was defeated by the English Company. Nawab Mir Jafar. was driven out of Bengal and Bihar. He took refuge with Shuia-ud-daullah. the Nawab of Awadh and the joint army of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Awadh and the Mugal Emperor Shah Alam fought a battle of Buxar in . 1764 against the British and the Indian armies were defeated. The battle of Buxar proved itself to be a turning point in the history of India as the Britishers established their kingdom in India permanently.
4. When the battle of Buxar took place, Hactor Munroe was the Commander-in-chief of British army and by that time Clive had become the Governor of the Company. After the battle of Buxar fought on, the Nawab of Awadh and the Mugal Emperor signed treaties at Allahabad with Clive in 1765. Under these treaties, the English Company secured the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, which gave the Company the right to collect revenue but the responsibility to pay the army remained on the Nawab. Thus, there became Dual Government in Bengal.

Extension of British Influence (1765-1785):-
The British interest, to begin with, was on Bombay, Madras and Calcutta but because of treaties of Allahabad in 1765, the British had become the virtual rulers of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. From 1765 to 1772 there remained Dual Government in Bengal. In 1772, Warren Hastings became the first Governor of Bengal. In 1773 he was made the first Governor General of British territories in India through the Regulating Act, 1773. In 1772, Warren Hastings abolished the Dual Government in Bengal, and Bengal was brought under the direct control of the company. Calcutta became the real Capital of Bengal from this year.

Anglo-Mysore Wars:-
The wars between Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan on one side and the Britishers on the opposite side are known as Anglo-Mysore Wars. 1. The first Anglo-Mysore War (1769) was fought between the British and Hyder Ali in which Hyder Ali was the winner. 2. Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) Hyder Ali attacked the English. In 1782 Hyder Ali died. But his son Tipu Sultan continued war. This war ended with the Mangalore treaty. Both sides remained equal in this war. 3. Third Anglo- Mysore War (1791), Tipu Sultan was defeated. Comwallis won the third war. 4. Fourth Anglo- Mysore War (1799). Wellesley, adopting the offensive policy attacked Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan was killed fighting. Lord Clive:- Lord Clive was appointed a clerk in the Company. He, due to hard work and boldness reached the post of Governor of the Company. -He won the battle of Plasi, started dual government in Bengal and performed Allahabad treaties.

The Policy of Non-interventions (1785-1797):- When Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General of India returned to England after having made huge personal fortune, he was impeached by British Parliament for committing atrocities against Indians and for taking bribes from Indian rulers. Although he was acquitted. His successors Comwallis and John Shore tried to keep themselves off from intervening in the affairs of the Indian rulers. The policy followed by them is known as the policy of non-intervention.

British Expansion from 1798 to 1809:- In 1798 Wellesley was appointed the Governor-General and he started a new wave of expansion. Wellesley developed a new policy known as “Subsidiary Alliance”. An Indian ruler accepting the Subsidiary alliance with the British was now made to keep a large British force within his territory and pay for its maintenance. Indian ruler was also forced to have a British official called the Resident at his court. This system gave the Indian ruler a sense of security against. Other rulers but in effect it meant loss of his independence. The first ruler to accept the subsidiary alliance was the Nizam of Hyderabad, second was the Nawab of Awadh, third one was the Peshwa of Maratha Baji Rao II and fourth rulers were Bhonsle and Scindhia.
British Expansion from 1809 to 1848:- After Wellesley, Lord Minto was sent as the Governor-General of India. He safeguarded the British regions. He restricted the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh’s expansion to the east of Sutlej and signed the treaty of Amritsar in 1809 with Ranjit Singh. In 1843, Sind was annexed by the Britishers.

Establishment of British Paramountcy (1848-1856):-
1. Dalhousie (1848-56) adopted ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ and the Policy of Subsidiary Alliances to expand their regions. In 1848, due to revolt of Sikhs against the British in Punjab the second Anglo-Sikh war followed. Dalhousie was the Governor General at that time. He conquered Punjab and annexed it in 1849.Thus the powerful state built by Ranjit Singh came to an end. In 1856, Awadh was annexed on the excuse of bad rule. Thus till the end of Dalhousie period in 1856, the British conquest of India was complete and British Empire in India was firmly established. So it took about 100 years to capture India by British.

2. Under Doctrine of Lapse such Indian territories were annexed by the British the rulers of which had no son. These included Jhansi, Nagpur and Satara. Nana Sahib, the adopted son of the Peshwas, was refused the pension which the Peshwas had been receiving. The ancestors of Mugal Empire Bahadur Shah were prevented to use the title of Emperor (Samrat).

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: The Rise and Growth of British Rule in India
The Rise and Growth of British Rule in India
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