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Climate of India

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Climate of India: Factors affecting the climate of India:- (1) Situation (2) Relief (3) Surface winds and (4) Upper Air Circulation. H...

Climate of India:

Factors affecting the climate of India:-
(1) Situation (2) Relief (3) Surface winds and (4) Upper Air Circulation.
Himalaya acts as an effective climatic divider. Thus this northern wall in form of Himalaya is responsible for giving the whole of Northern India a tropical climate. Two characteristic features of a tropical climate are (1) Relatively high temperatures almost throughout the year and (2) predominately dry winters.

Monsoons:-
(1) South - West Monsoon:- The duration from June to September is known as South’- West monsoon in India. South West Monsoon accounts for 75 to 90 percent of the annual rainfall just from June to September.
In the beginning of June the trade winds coming from the Indian Ocean Cross the equator and divide into two parts - one enters into Bay of Bengal and the other enters into the Arbian Sea. These winds blow at an average speed of 30 km per hour. These get moisture from sea. The sudden approach of the ^moisture - laden winds is associated with violent thunder and lightening. This is known as (“break” or “brust” of the monsoons). These monsoon winds follow a south-westerly direction. The Arbian Sea Monsoon branch is obstructed by the Western Ghats so the Sahyadris near Kerala receive very heavy rainfall. One branch of the Bay of Bengal monsoon strikes the Goa and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya in Eastern India and causes heavy rainfall. Mausyhram and cherrapunji, both located near to each other in Meghalaya, receive the highest average annual rainfall in the world. Mawsynram is located on the crest of Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. This register a rainfall of over 1080 centimetres. In the Ganga Plains both branches mingles with each other. Because the Arbian Sea Branch of the monsoon comes parallel to the Aravali Hills, so it causes only a scanty rainfall over West Rajasthan.
Towards the close of summer, premonsoon showers are known as “Mango Showers” at the coast of Tamil Nadu or thieastern coaster the Coromandal Coast.

Note:- Tamilnadu or the Eastern Coast or Coromandal coast has scanty rainfall. So are the Poona and Jodhpur which receive a scanty rainfall. These places receive an annual rainfall of less than 50 cm.

(2) Retreating Monsoons:- The months of October to November are known for the retreating monsoons. The monsoons low pressure becomes weaker and is replaced by. high pressure. This results in the retreat of the monsoon. This monsoon causes highest rainfall in Tamilnadu on the Coromandal Coast or Eastern Coast and Andaman, Sunderban delta and Bangladesh.

Distribution of Rainfall:-
1. Areas with more than 200 cm of annual rainfall - Meghalaya, Assam, Delta of Ganga, WestemGhat and the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh.
2. Areas of medium rainfall or the areas with 100 cm to 200 cm of annual rainfall - Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chota Nagpur, West Bengal and Bihar & Jharkhand.
3. Areas of lower rainfall or the areas with 50 cm to 100 cm of annual rainfall - Deccan plateau, eastern Rajasthan and some parts of Kashmir.
4. Areas of lowest rainfall or the areas with less than 50 cm of annual rainfall - Western Rajasthan (Jaisalmer and Barhmer) and Kachh (Gujarat).

Seasons of India:-
1. Cold Weather Season - From December to February.
2. Hot Weather Season - From March to May
3. Advancing Monsoon Season - From June to September

4. Retreating Monsoon Season - From October to November

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CLEAR CTET: Climate of India
Climate of India
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