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Trade, Transport and Communications:

1. Roadways:- The heighest road of the world is between Leh & Manali.
2. Railways:- Railways were introduced in India in 1853 by Lord Dalhausia from Bombay to Thane. Indian Railways is the largest government organisation having largest number of employees in India. There is a metro service in Calcutta. There are 16 railway zones in India. The North Zone having the head office in Delhi is the largest zone.
3. Waterways (Major Ports):- Nhava Sheva ( J. Lal Nehru port) is the’ latest addition to our major ports taking their tally to twelve (1) Kandla (Gujarat) is a tidal port being used for import (2) Bombay is India’s largest and natural harbour. This port joints India’s Western coast with Europe, Arab countries and African countries. (3) In order to relieve the growing pressure on Bombay, port, Nhava Sheva port has been developed (4) Marmagao in Goa is used for export of Iron ore. (5) Mangalore in Karnataka is used for the export of Kudremukh iron ore. It also handles the granite stone. (6) Cochin in Kerala is natural port. It handles petroleum products and fertilisers.
The six sea ports mentioned above are situated at Western Sea coast of India and the following six sea ports are situated at the eastern sea coast of India :- (7) Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) (8) Madras or Chennai (Tamil Nadu) is an artificial port. It joints eastern countries and the route of cape of good hope with India is the second largest port after Bombay. (9) Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh is the deepest landlocked and protected port. (10) Paradeep in Orissa specialises in exporting iron ore : It also handles coal because coal mines are nearer to this port. (11) Calcutta in West Bengal is an inland riverine port and a tidal port as well. It serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmputra basin. To organise it smoothly it needs constant dredging (xkn gVkuk) of Hoogly. Farrakka barrage has been built on the Ganga in order to maintain a minimum level of water in the river Hoogly. (12) Haldia in West Bengal has been developed to relieve the growing pressure on Calcutta port. It is on Hoogly river.
4. Airways:- In 1953, the Indian Government set up two public sector undertakings :-
(1) Indian Air Lines, and (2) Air India

(1) Indian Air Lines:- This air lines look after domestic travel.
(2) Air India:- This air lines take care of international travel.

International Airports:- (1) Delhi - Indira Gandhi Internationa! Air Port. (2) Mumbai - Shanta Cruiz Air Port (3) Tirvanpuram - Kerala (4) Chennai - Meenambakkam (5) Calcutta - Netaji Subhash Chander Bose Air Port

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: Trade, Transport and Communications
Trade, Transport and Communications
DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET
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