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Independent India:

Individual Satyagraha:- In October 1940, Gandhiji launched the Individual Satyagraha movement. The first Satyagrahi Chosen for this movement was Vinoba Bhave and the second one was Jawaharlal Nehru.

Cripps Mission:-
1. The weak position of the British in the war in 1942 and the air raids by the Japanese on some parts of India compelled the British to open talks with the Indian leaders and get the Cooperation of Indian people. Sir Stafford Cripps (known as Cripps Mission) came to India in March 1942.
2. Congress demanded to form a truly national government and a constitutuent assembly for the Cooperation wanted by British from the Congress. Cripps Mission agreed to the demand for a constituent assembly but the British were not willing to agree to the formation of a truly national government. Thus talks failed. Gandhiji refused the proposals of Cripps saying, “You are issuing us a post dated cheque, whose bank is also going to be bankrupt”.

Quit India Movement:- As the Cripps Mission ended to a failure, the Congress, on 8 August 1942 , in Bombay passed a resolution regarding Quit India Movement. During this movement Gandhiji asked the Indian people ‘Do or Die’. There were boycott, arson, and hartals in every part of the country. Quit India Movement started from 9 August 1942. During the same movement Gandhiji gave the call to the British-Quit India. On 9 August 1942, Gandhiji and most of the leaders of the Congress were arrested.
Therefore the revolutionary activities were organised by the Congress leaders of the second line like Jai Prakash Narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, S. M. Joshi and Ram Manohar Lohia.

Subhash Chandra Bose:-
Subhas Chandra Bose was born in Cuttack (Orissa) in 1897. Subhash went to England on his parent’s insistence, to appear for the Indian Civil Service examination. He was selected to the Indian Civil Service, standing fourth in the list of selected candidates. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre had deeply shocked him. So, in April 1921, he resigned from the Indian Civil Service and plunged himself into the Non-Cooperation Movement. His political Guru was Chittaranjandas. An important development in the struggle for freedom during the Second World War was the formation of Indian Independence League with the help of Japan by a revolutionary, Rash Behari Bose. Indian Independence League is also known as the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ or Indian National Army (INA). General Mohan Singh, who had been an officer in the British Indian Army, played a key role in organising this army.

Subhas Chandra Bose as the Congress President:- Netaji became Congress President in the Congress session held at Haripua in 1938. In 1939, Gandhiji’s candidate Pattabhi Sitaramaia contested election against Netaji for the Presidentship. But Netaji won the election in the Congress session held in 1939 at Tripuri and again became the Congress President. However he resigned from the Presidentship of the Congress due to non-cooperation of Gandhiji. He founded Forward Block in 1939 A.D.

Some Important points regarding Netaji and Azad Hind Fauj:-
1. Netaji had escaped from India to 1941 and gone to Germany.
2. In 1943, he came to Singapore to lead Indian Independence League and rebuilt the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj)
3. In 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose proclaimed the formation of the Provisional Government of Independent India (Azad Hind) in Singapore. Netaji himself become the Prime Minister of this government and the Chief of Azad Hind Fauj.
4. Japan had captured Andaman and Nicobar Islands but later handed over to Netaji. Netaji changed their names as - ‘Sahid’ for Andaman and ‘Swaraj’ for Nicobar and hoisted the flag of India there.
5. Netaji gave some popular slogans to the people like ‘Jai Hind’, ‘Delhi Chalo’ and ‘Tum Mujhe Khoon Do Main Tumeh Azadi Dunga’.
6. To defeat Japan completely, U.S.A. dropped two atom bombs on two cities of Japan-Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively.
7. A women’s regiment of Azad Hind Fauj was formed under the command of Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan (Sahagat).
8. British government put on trial, the three officers of Azad Hind Fauj, Shah Nawaj Khan, P.K. Sehgal and G.S. Dhillon at Red Fort in Delhi. The three officers were convicted to death sentences but their sentences were remitted due to heavy pressure of the Indian public.

Coming of Independence at India’s Door:- During the Second World War, though Britain and the allied powers emerged as victorious, but the power of Britain reduced. Indian public along with the army stood for revolt. Besides this, their came the government of the Labour Party in England, in power and ‘Clement Attlee’ became the P.M. of England. The British Government announced in 1946 to free India.

Cabinet Mission:- In 1946, a three members Cabinet Mission was sent to India to hold negotiations with Indian leaders on the transfer of power. It proposed to form the formation of an interim government and the convening of a Constituent Assembly.

Formation of the Constituent Assembly:- A provision was made to form a Constituent Assembly composed of members elected by Provincial Legislatures and the nominees of the rulers of Indian States. But the Muslim League and the Princes refused to participate in the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly started its work of framing the Constitution on 9 December 1946 Dr. Sachidanand Sinha was the temporary President of the Constituent Assembly. Later on on 11th Dec. 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the Permanent President’-of the Constituent Assembly.

Formation of Interim Government:- The Constituent Assembly formed the interim government -headed by Jawaharlal Nehru. In the beginning the Muslim League did not participate in the interim government but later, they joined the interim government.

Mountbatten Plan:-
1. Lord Mountbatten who came in India in March 1947 as the last .Viceroy, presented a plan for the discussion of India.
2. There had been Hindu-Muslim riots in 1946. Thousands of people were killed in the riots in Bengal, Bihar and Bombay. The announcement of partition was followed by more riots, particularly in the Punjab. Gandhiji toured the riot ravaged areas in Bengal (Noakhali) and succeeded in checking the riots. Mountbatten called him - ‘One Man Army’.
3. A Separate State of Pakistan comprising West Punjab, East Bengal, Sind and North-West Frontier. Province was created. On 14 August 1947.
4. On 15 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly also began to function as the Parliament of Independent India. Jawaharlal Nehru took oath as the first Prime Minister of free India. He hoisted our National Flag at Red Fort at the dawn of 15 August 1947.

The States and their Unification:-
1. There was an immediate problem regarding the political unification of India. This challengable task performed by Sardar Vallabhbhai patel. Sardar Patel was our first Home Minister and first Deputy Prime Minister. There were three states which had not acceded. They were Jammu and Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
2. The people of Jammu and Kashmir wanted to accede. But the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir wanted to remain separate. Pakistan invaded Kashmir. The people of Kashmir and the Indian Army fought against the Pakistan invaders. Jammu and Kashmir became a part of India in 1948.
3. The Nawab of Junagadh fled to Pakistan and the people of Junagadh voted in favour of the state acceding to India.
4. Hyderabad acceded to India in 1948.

Incomplete Independence:- Though India became free from British, but colonial possessions of France and Portugal was still in India:-

1. French Possessions:- Pondicherry, Karaikal, Yanam, Mahe and Chander Nagar were under French rule. Mahe in 1948 and Chander Nagar in 1949 merged with India. Pondicherry, Karaikal and Yanam merged with India in 1954 through an agreement between India and France.

2. Portuguese Possessions:- Goa, Daman, Diu and Dadra and Nagar-Haveli were under Portuguese rule. In 1954, the freedom fighters liberated Dadra and Nagar Haveli from the Portuguese rule. “Finally in December 1961 the Portuguese surrendered. Goa became the part of India. With this, now, whole of India become independent.

Some Important Facts:-
1. On 30 January 1948, a Hindu fanatic shot him dead as he was going to the prayer meeting at Birla Bhavan in Delhi.
2. After the death of Gandhiji, Jawaharlal Nehru in his broadcasting to the nation said, “Light has gone out of our lives.”
3. The partition of the country created many economic problems. Most of the jute and cotton textile factories were in India while the major jute and cotton-producing areas went to Pakistan.
4. The Constituent Assembly completed its work on 26 November 1949. On 26 January 1950 India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic and on that date our Constitution came into force.
5. The first news paper in India was the Bengal Gazette.
6. Raja Monmohan Roy started two papers, Sambad-Kaumudi in Bengali and Miratul-Akbar in Persian.
7. The bi-weekly Kesari, a Marathi journal and Maratha paper in English were started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Tilak wrote a book -.’Gita Rahasya’.

27. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started Alhilal paper.

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Independent India
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