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Nationalist Movement(1923-1939):

Swaraj Party:- After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Congress was divided into two groups; One group that was known as “Changers” was led by Chittranjan Das, Motilal Nehru and Vithalbhai Patel and the other group that was known as “non-changers” was led by Vallabh bhai Patel, C. Rajagopalachari and Rajendra Prasad. Moreover the Congress rejected the proposal for entering the legislatures, C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Vithalbhai Patel fomed the ‘Congress Khilafat Swarajya Party’ in 1923, popularly known as the Swaraj Party. But they did so with remaining in Congress and the Congress permitted the Swaragists to contest the elections. 

Peasants and Workers Movements-
1. The first all India organisation of peasants, The All India Kisan Sabha’, was formed. One of the pioneers of the trade union movement in India was Narayana Malhar Joshi (N.M. Joshi) who formed the first all India Organisation of workers, the ‘All India Trade Union Congress’ in Bombay in 1920. “ Many important leaders, such as C.R. Das, Jawahar lal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose, also became Presidents of the All India Trade Union Congress.
2. When Gandhiji, was released from jail in 1924, he formed . ‘All India Spinners Association.’
3. In 1928, Vallabh bhai Patel led the struggle of the peasants of Bardoli against increase in revenue. It was the same struggle where, he was given the title ‘Sardar’ by the local women.

Spread of Socialist Ideas:-
1. The Communist Party of India was- formed in 1925 by S.A. Dange, M. Singaravelu, Shaukat Usmani and Muzaffa’r Ahmad.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru formed ‘The Congress Socialist Party’ in 1934. He was the most important leader of the nationalist movement, who played a leading role in popularising socialist ideas in India.

Revolutionary Movement[2nd Phase]:-
1. The frustration caused by the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement led to the revival of revolutionary activities in the 1920’s.
2. An organisation called the ‘Hindustan Republican Association’ was formed by Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chatterji. Its aim was to organize an armed revolution to overthrow the British rule. Earlier, Chandra Shekhar Azad was also the member of this organisation.
3. In 1925, a group of revolutionaries looted a government treasury from a train at Kakori station in Uttar Pradesh. In the trail of the Kakori Conspiracy Case, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfakulla Khan, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri were sentenced to death. All these were the members of Hindustan Republican Association.
4. In 1928, Chandra Shekhar Azad joined hands with other revolutionaries and formed ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Army’. The most prominent leader of this organisation was Bhagat Singh.
5. In December 1928, a police officer named Saunders was assassinated by Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev to take the revenge. He was believed to have been responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai as a result of lathi charge in a procession against Simon Commission.
6. On 8th April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Butkeshwar Dutt threw two bombs in the Assembly. Both these were sentenced to death in Saunders assassination case.
7. The revolutionaries were treated badly in jails. Jatin Das went on hunger strike in jail to protest against the treatment meted out to them. His death on the 64th day of his hunger strike shocked the country.
8. In 1931, Chandra Shekhar Azad shot himself dead in Alfred Park in Ailahabad during an encounter with the police.
9. In 1930, the revolutionaries of the Indian Republician Army organised by Surya Sen raided the police armoury at Chittagong Two of them Surva Sen and Tarakeswar were sentenced to death
10. The two young girls who played an important role in the activities of the Indian Revolutionary Army were Pritilata Waddadar and Kalpana Dutt. Kalpana Dutt was sentenced to life imprisonment and to escape capture by the British, Pritilata killed herself by taking poison.

The Simon Commission:- The British Government appointed commission to enquire into the working of the Montugu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. This Commission is known as the Simon Commission. Indian people strongly opposed it because the members of the Commission were all Englishmen. This Commission was appointed in 1927 and arrived in India in 1928. The Congress and the Muslim League both decided to boycott the Commission and it was condemned all over the country. In Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai (Punjab Kesri) led the demonstration. He was severely assaulted by the police. He died due to lathi charge by Sanders. The lathi blows crippled Govind Ballabh Pant for life.

Demand for Complete Independence (Swaraj):- In 1927 in the Madras session of Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru put the proposal of complete Independence (Swaraj) which was supported by all the members. Then, complete independence (Swaraj) was meant-to form self government under the British, rule. Thus it was not a complete independence. The Indian Independence League was formed to press the demand for complete independence. The League was led by Jawaharlal Nehru, Netaji and Srinivas Iyengar.

Demand for Dominion Status:- In the Congress session at Calcutta, in December 1928, under the Presidentship of Motilal Nehru, Congress passed a revolution demanding Dominion Status. This meant less than complete independence.

Demand for Complete Independence and Civil Disobedience Movement:-
1. In 1929, the Congress session took place in Lahore. The President of the session was Jawaharlal Nehru. On 31 December 1929, Gandhiji put the resolution for complete independence. To achieve complete independence, it was decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress also decided that 26 January, every year would be observed as the Independence Day. On 26 January 1930, Independence Day was observed all over the country with great joy. But later when India got independence on 15 August 1947, to mark the importance of 26 January, our country observed this day as our Republic Day.
2. The Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji began with the famous Dandi March of Gandhiji on 12 March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad. Gandhiji broke the Salt Law by making salt in Dandi Village situated on the western sea-coast of India on 6 April 1930
3. In the North-West Frontier Province, the movement was led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popular known as the Sarhadi Gandhi (Frontier Gandhi). He launched Khudai Khidmatgar and Lal Kurti Movements. He was the first foreigner to receive Bharat-Ratna.

The First Round Table Conference (1930):- In November 1930, the British government convened the First Round Table Conference in London. The Congress boycotted it but Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha and Dr. Ambedkar participated in it. This conference had utterly failed.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact:- After the failure of First Round Table Conference, Viceroy Irwin arranged talk with Congress and Gandhiji. An agreement between Gandhi and Irwin named Gandhi-Irwin Pact reached on 5 March 1931. Congress accepted to join the Second Round Table Conference. Congress sent Gandhiji to take part in the Conference in London. According to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact the Government agreed to release all the political prisoners imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement and the Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement.

The Second Round Table Conference(1931):- In 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held in London. The British were not interested in India’s independence so the Second Round Table Conference ended in a failure. Gandhiji returned to India and the Civil Disobedience Movement was revived. The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn in 1934 by the Congress.
The Third Round Table Conference (1932): -Note: All the three Round Table Conferences were attended by Dr. BR Ambedkar.

Communal Parties and their Role:-
1. The Muslims were given the right to elect their separate representative through the Communal award of 1909. Now, in 1931 communal electorates were extended to Sikhs also
2. In March 1940, at Lahore session, the Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan.

Movements of the Depressed Classes:-
1. E.V. Ramaswamy Naickar (popularly known as ‘Periyar’) started the Self-Respect MoVement. The leading figure in the movements of the Depressed Classes was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
2. Gandhiji called the so called untouchables, ‘Harijans’ or the people of God, and brought out a journal of the same name ‘Harijan’.
3. Communal Award & Poona Pact: In 1932, the British Government announced separate electrorates for so-called untouchable castes, like they had done in the case of Muslims and Sikhs in 1909 and 1931 respectively. But due to Gandhiji’s fast unto death in jail against this decision, the decision of withdrawn of separate electrorates took place. It happened because of an agreement between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar in 1932 known as ‘Poona Pact’. Because they suspected that this was a part of the British policy of ‘divide and rule’. At the same time, it was ensured that the people of the so-called untouchable castes would get adequate representation.

Government of India Act 1935:-
Three Round Table Conferences were held in England but Congress participated only in the Second Conference. All the three conferences ended in failure. In August 1935, the British Government announced the Government of India Act 1935.
According to this Act:-
1. India would became a federation if 50 per cent of Indian states decided to join it.There would be two legislature at the central level. However, the provisions with regards to the federation were not implemented.
2. At its 1936 session, held at Lucknow, under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Congress rejected the Act of 1935. It repeated the demand of Constituent Assembly. However, it decided to participate in the elections to the Provincial Legislative Assemblies that were held in 1937.
3. Congress swept the poll in these elections of 1937. It won an absolute majority in 7 provinces. In three others, it was the single, largest party. The Congress formed its ministries in .seven out of 11 provinces. In two more provinces it formed governments with the help of other parties. Only in two provinces there were non-Congress ministries.


Resignation by the Ministries:- The Second World War started in 1939. The British government, without consulting the Indian people, made India a party to the war. In anger, the Congress ministries that had been formed in the provinces resigned in November 1939.



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Nationalist Movement(1923-1939)
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