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The Ancient and Medieval Art and Architecture:

Mauryan Period:-
India’s National Emblem has been adopted from Sarhath lion capitol of Ashoka.
Cave Architecture:-
1. The cave temples of Elephanta, Ajanta and Ellora are situated at Aurangabad in Maharashtra.
2. In the Elephanta caves we see the magnificent ‘Trimurti’. .
3. There are 27 caves in Ajanta. Some of these caves contain extraordinary beautiful images of the Buddha scene from his life and from the Jataka Stories.
4. At Ellora there are 35 caves. The greatest work here, the Kailasa temple, is a contribution of the Rashtrakutas
5. The splendid panel called the ‘Descent of the Ganga in Mahabalipuram' is a unique rock-cut sculpture. The Descent of the Gang and panel in Mahabalipuram and the rock temple both are rock-cut temples. These were built by the Pallava kings.

The Structural Temples:-
1. The Pallavas built a number of structural temples also. Their capital was Kanchi. The most famous of these structural temples are ‘Shore Temple’ at Mahabalipuram and the Kailasanatha Temple (Nataraja Temple) with its lovely Vimana and Vaikuntha perumal temple.
2. The capital of Cholas was Tanjavur. The Birhadeeshwara temple at Tanjavur built by Cholas is the greatest temple in India. This was built by Chola king Rajendra.
3. Among the features of the temples built by Pandya rulers the most important is, the building of high outer walls with entrance gate ways topped by Gopurams.

The Bronze Sculpture of the Cholas:-
Starting during the Pallava period, the bronze sculpture reached heights of glory during the Chola rule.
The image of Nataraja (The Lord of Dance) is a superb masterpiece of the Chola bronze sculpture.

Other Indian Temples:-
1. The Sun temple in Konarak (Orissa) popularly known as “Black Pagoda” is unique in design. It is dedicated to the Sun god. The Lingraja temple of Bhubaneswar is also a very famous temple in Orissa
2. The great temples of Khajuraho were built by the Chandella ruler of Central India.
3. The Jain temples at Mount Abu (Rajasthan) are the finest monuments of the Solanki kings of Gujrat.

Architecture under the Sultanate:-
1. The mosques at Delhi and Ajmer are the first buildings built in Sultanate period by Qutb-ud-din Aibak The mosque built in Meharauli is called the Quwwat-ul- Islam mosque. Ala-ud-din Khilji built a gateway to the enclosure of the mosque, the Alai Darwaja.
2. In Meharauli Qutab Minar was started by Qutb-ud-din but it was completed by Iltutmish
3. Ala-ud-din Khilji built a mosque in Ajmer, Adhai din ka Jhonpara.

The Mughal Architecture:-
1. The mausoleum of Sher Shah is at Sasaram (Bihar).
2. The Humayun’s tomb is at Delhi.
3. Akbar crested the forts at Agra and Lahore.
4. Akbar built his new capital at Fatehpur Sikri, about 40 kilometers from Agra. The Buland Darwaja of Fatehpur Sikri is perhaps the most imposing gateway in the world. The palace of Jodha Bai (Wife of Akbar) and the palace of Birbal are also here. Jahangir completed the mausoleum of Akbar at Sikandara (near Agra) which was- started by Akbar himself The tomb of Salim Chisti also is at Fatehpur Sikri.
5. Jahangir built the tomb of Itmad-ud-daula, the father of his wife Nur Jahan at Agra.
6. Jahangir’s wife Nur Jahan built a mausoleum for her husband at Shahdara near Lahore.
7. The greatest of the Mughal builders was Shah Jahan, the son of Jahangir. His reign marks the - highest development of Mughal architecture. He built the city of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi). He also built Jama Masjid and Red Fort in Delhi. He built the Taj Mahal in Agra in the sweet memory of his wife, Mumtaj Mahal. It has been aptly described as ‘the dream in marble’.

Gandhara and Mathura Schools of Art:-
1. During the Greek invasions, India got the Gandhara art of images. The Kushana kings, particularly kaniskha, encouraged the Gandhara artists of sculpture themes from Buddha’s life and the Jatakas.
2. Buddha and the Bodhisattvas were first produced in Mathura Art.

Muslim Sufi Sant and Hindu Sant:-
1. The grave of Khawaza Muinuddin Chisti is at Ajmer.
2. The grave of Sufi Sant Nizamuddin Oliya is in Delhi. Amir Khusro was his disciple.

4. Chaitnaya Mahaprabhu born in Bengal and belonged to Krishna Bhakti. Jhaneshwara, Namdev and Sant-Tuka Ram belonged to Maharashtra.

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: The Ancient and Medieval Art and Architecture
The Ancient and Medieval Art and Architecture
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