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The Ancient and Medieval Literature:

1. Most of Ashoka’s inscriptions are in Prakrit language and their script is Brahmi, the earliest known Indian script and mother of most Indian scripts.
2. The Arthashastra written by Kautilya is a treatise on the science of governance.
3. The early Buddhist literature was in Pali and consists of two sections. The Suttapitaka and the Vinayapitaka.
4. Gupta period is known as the golden period of Indian literature. Kalidasa, Bhavabhuti, Bharvi, Bhrithrihari and Bambhatt were the famous writer during Gupta period.
5. Kalidasa wrote Kumar Sambhavam, Raguvansa, Meghdutam, Abhijanshakuntalam. Uttam Ramcharit by Bhavabhuti, Kirtarjuniya by Bharvi, Mudra Rakshas by Vishakha Dutt, Mrichhkatikam by Shudrk, Dash Kumar Charit by Dandin, Rajataringini by Kalhana (as this is the first historical work in India), Gita Govinda by Jaideva, Prithviraj Raso by Chand Bardai, Vikramanka Deva Charit by Vilhana (a biography of the Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI), Adipurana by Pampa are the famous books.
6. Ziauddin Barani. wrote the Tarikh-i-Firozsliahi which gives detailed account of the religious of Khiljis and the Tughlaqs. He also wrote a work on political theory called the Fatawa-i-Jahandari.
7. Amir Khusrau’was a poet, historian, mystic and composer of music. He was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya. He called India ‘Earthly Paradise’. He remained the poet in the courts of Khiljis and Tuglaqs. He is popularly known as ‘Tota-e-Hind’.

Important Books and their authors:
(Medieval India):
1. Padamavata — Malik Mohammad Jayasi (Avadhi)
2. Ram Charit Manas — Tulsidasa (Avadhi)
3. Babarnama — Babar (Turkish)
4. Humayunama — Humayun’s sister GulBadan Begam
5. Tujuk-i-Jahangiri – Jahangir
6. Ain-i-Akbari or Akbar Nama – Abul Fazl
7. Satsai – Bihari Lai
8. Ramayana – Valmiki
9. Mahabharata-Vedvyas (World’s largest epic)
10. Bhagvad Gita-Vedvyas
11. The Rig Veda is the earliest known work of the Aryans. All the Vedas are written in Sanskrit.
12. The Yajurveda (for the performance of the yajna).
13. The Sama Veda (for the tunes for the recitation of the hymns of the Rig Veda)
14. The Atharva Veda (for rites and rituals).
15. Ashtadhyayi-Panini (Sanskrit Grammar)
16. Buddha Charit-Ashvaghosh
17. Prithvi Raj Raso—Chand Bardai (First epic)
18. Panch Tantra—Vishnu Sharma

Important Dates of Medieval India:-
1. A.D 712—Defeat and death of Dahir and Arab conquest of Sind.(Calicut).
2. A.D. 1026—Sack of SomNath by Sultan Mahumud Gazni.
3. A.D. 1191—Prithviraj III defeated Mohammad Gori in the first battle of Tarain.
4. A.D. 1192—Mohammad Gori defeated Prithviraj III in the second battle of Tarain.
5. A.D. 1206—Death of Muhammad Gori and Qutb-ud-din Aibak founded the Slave dynasty.
6. A.D. 1336—Traditional date of the foundation of the Vijayanagara kingdom by Harihar and Bukka.
7. A.D. 1347—Foundation of the Bahamani Kingdom.

8. A.D 1348—Timur’s invasion on India (Delhi).
9.     A.D. 1498—Arival of Vasco da gama in India
10.   A.D. 1526—First Battle of Panipat—Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodi and founded Mughal Empire.
11.   A.D. 1527—Battle of Khanua-Babar defeated Rana Sanga.
12.   A.D. 1530—Death of Babar and accession of Humayun.
13.   A.D. 1539—Afghan Shershah defeated Humayun at Chausa.
14.   A.D. 1545—Death of Sher Shah
15.   A.D. 1556—Death of Humayun and accession of Akbar and Akbar defeated Hemu in the second battle of Panipat.
16.   A.D. 1565—Battle of Talikota. Vijayanagara
17. A.D. 1600—-Queen Elizabeth granted charter to the company of Merchants in London to trade with the east.
18. A.D. 1605—Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir.
19. A.D. 1615—Sir Thomas Roe received by Jahangir.
20. A.D. 1627—Birth of Shivaji, Death of Jahangir.
21.   A.D. 1628—Shah Jahan proclaimed emperor, kingdom defeated.
22.   A.D. 1674—Shivaji assumed royal title.
23.   AD. 1680—Death of Shivaji.
24.   A.D. 1707—Death of Aurangzeb and accession of Bahadur Shah I.
25    AD. 1739—  Nadir Shah invaded and occupied Delhi. He looted and carried away Kohinoor diamond and the Peacock Throne from Red Fort.
26.  AD. 1761—Third battle of Panipat-Abadali defeated the Marathas.


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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: The Ancient and Medieval Literature
The Ancient and Medieval Literature
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