8.2 Theories of Personality

Theories of Personality :-

1. Psychoanalytic Theory- The proponent of this theory was Sigmund Freud. According to him man’s personality is grimed out of the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego. These terms explained thus: Id regress to the general ego, ego is the individual’s ego and the super ego is man’s moral sense. Id is the unconscious mind in which man’s instincts and innate desires. These demand immediate satisfaction. The ego comprehends with it itself consciousness, power of taking decisions or determination, the intellect and reasoning. The super ego is formed or generated by ideals.
2. The Constitution theory - The proponent of this theory is Sheldon, who pointed out the following bases of personality.
(i) Endomorphy - Individuals having this kind of personality have well developed and rounded necks and well developed muscles. Increase in fatty tissues is a characteristic and distinguishing feature of this kind of personality.
(ii) Mesmorphy - In this kind of personality, the development of the bones and muscles is selective and restricted.
(iii) Ectomorphy - In the individuals with this kind of personality the muscle fibers of the central nervous system are well developed.
In school of thought, various parts and organs of the body are regarded as the basis of the formation of personality.
3. Factorial theory - The proponent of this theory, R.B. Cattell, has the following to say about the nature of personality : “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.”
Cattell opines that character is an amalgam of many factors. In his view, fineness of character which means emotional integration, is the product of sociability, imaginativeness, intuition, curiosity, carelessness and many other factors form the personality.
4. Allport’s theory - The theory of personality proposed by Gordon W. Allport is based upon heredity and environment. In his theory, Allport has emphasized the end for doing justice to the complex combination called personality which is determined by heredity. He also feels the need to do justice to temperament and social as well as psychological factors. At the same time, he has also stress the uniqueness of each person, which is found in many fashions in individual’s personality is determined by the determined of personality characterises and adjustment quality to environment.
5. H.A. Murray’s theory - Defining his view of personality, Murray has stated that, “Personality is continuity of functional forms and forces manifested through sequence of organised process and overt behaviour from birth to death.” According to this theory, the continuity of functional forms, negative and positive cathexis, relations, differences of opinion, state of activity, passivity, etc. combine together to determine personality.
This theory is open to some serious objection such as influence of invisible or unconscious determinates upon behaviour, the role of learning and state of level of motivation, which influence the personality and become the cause of its manifestation.

Personality: Influencing Factors :-

1. Somatic influences
2. Heredity
3. Environmental factor :- The environment influence personality in two ways :-
(i) Social environment
(ii) Cultural contact
4. Childhood experiences
5. School experience
6. Ductless glands

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Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS: Theories of Personality
Theories of Personality
Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS
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