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Kingdoms of North(A.D.800-AD.1200)

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Kingdoms of North(A.D.800-AD.1200): 1. The struggle for Kannauj :- The struggle to control Kannauj is known as the tripartite (three par...

Kingdoms of North(A.D.800-AD.1200):

1. The struggle for Kannauj:- The struggle to control Kannauj is known as the tripartite (three party) struggle for Kannauj. The three kingdoms were those of the Rashtra-kutas, the Pratiharas and the Palas.
2. The Pratiharas king, Bhoja was the most renowned king of northern India at that time. An Arab merchant Sulaiman came in India. Bhoja took the title of Adivaraha (Vishnu). Some of his coins have a picture of the Varaha (Vishnu).

The Rajputs:-
1. The Tomers built the city of Dhillika (Delhi).
2. Prithwiraj III, was famous king of Chauhan dynasty. He is the hero of the famous called Prithviraj-Raso composed by the Hindi poet Chandbardai.

Mahmud of Ghazni:- Ghazni was a small kingdom in Afghanistan. Its ruler Mahmud Ghazni raide+d India as many as 17 times. The first raid began in A.D. 1001. He took away the gold and jewellery. One of these attacks which is frequently mentioned was the destruction of the temple in Somnath. It was his seventeenth raid and the year was A.D. 1026. Somnath Temple is in the Western India (Saurashtra). He was the patron of the famous Persian Poet, Firdausi; who wrote the famous epic poem ‘Shah Namah’. Mahmud also sent the Central Asian scholar Alberuni to India. He wrote a historical book about India, known as ‘Tehkeek-e-Hind’. Mahmud Gazani returned from India having taken the title of Butshikan (Destroyer of the Statues). His prime object to attack India was to obtain booty, not to establish his kingdom.

Muhammad Ghori:- Mahmud of Ghazni, the ruler of Gaur in Afghanistan, Muhammad Ghori invaded India. In the first battle of Tarain in 1191, Delhi & Ajmer ruler Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Ghori. But in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and captured Delhi. But he was murdered (1206 A.D.) by kokhars in Multan His territory in northern India was left in control of his general Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Later he became the ruler of Delhi. Muhammad Ghori’s prime object was not merely getting gold and jewellery, but to conquer northern India. This was the beginning of the Turkish rule at Delhi In 1206. It is known as Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526).

Educational Learning:-
1. At Nalanda in Bihar, there was a famous Buddhist monastery and University. This University was founded by a Gupta king Skandhgupta and was ruined by a Turkish, Bakhtiar Khilji in thirteenth century
2. Bilhana’s Vikramanka-Dev-Charita is a famous book.
3. Kalhana’s remarkable history of Kashmir called the Rajatarangani was written in the twelfth century.
4. Jayadeva wrote Geet Govind, the story of the love of Radha and Krishna.

Architecture and Painting:-

1. The temples at Khajuraho in Central India (Madhya Pradesh) were built by the Chandella Kings in this period.
2. At Mt. Abu (in Rajasthan) there is a group of Jaina temples at Dilwara which are also of this period

3. The Sun Temple at Konark built by Gang Dynasty (in Orissa) is the most impressive looking temple of this period. Sun Temple is also known as “Black Pagoda”. So are the temple at Puri and Lin’graj temple of Bhubaneshwar

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