The Delhi Sultanate(1206-1526):

1. The Slave Sultans (1206 -1290 A.D.):-
i. The first ruler of Delhi was the general and slave of Muhammad Ghori, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. He is the founder of the Slave Dynasty.
ii. After Qutub-ud-did Aibak, Iltutmish became the Sultan of Delhi. It was during his period, Mongol people of Central Asia, led by Chenghiz Khan invaded Punjab in 1221 A.D. and conquered Punjab for sometime. After the death of Iltutmish, his daughter Razia became the ruler. She is known as the first woman ruler of Delhi. Iltutmish minted a silver coin Takah later on he also minted silver rupee from this coin:
iii. An other Sultan, Balban believed that the power of the Sultan was absolute. He encouraged people to do Sijdah and Pav Baus in his presence, that is, they had to kneel and touch the ground with their forehead in salutation to him. He defended the Sultanate from the attacks of the Mongols in the north. Balban is known for ‘Iron and Blood Policy.

2. The Khilji Sultans (1290-1320 A.D.):-
i. The Khilji dynasty was founded by Jalaluddin Khilji by ruining slave dynasty. In 1296 Ala-ud-din Khilji killed Jalaluddin and became Sultan. He wanted to become a ‘Second Alexander’ and conquer the world. He forced Mongols to withdraw. It was his period, the Mongols converted to Islam. He controlled the prices of goods and organised the market system. He was the first Sultan who kept record of the revenue collected. He captured the famous forts of Ranthambhor and Chittor.

ii. He was the first Sultan of Delhi who invaded and captured South India. This victory of South India was achieved by the Chief of his army Malik Kafur. This was the first ever attack by any Muslim on South India.

 The Tuglaq Sultans (1320-1412 A.D.):-
i. Gayasuddin Tuglaq founded Tuglaq dynasty. Most famous ruler of this dynasty was Muhammad-bin- Tuglaq (Joonakhan). The Arab traveller, Ibn Battutah came to India during his reign.
ii. He shifted his capital from Delhi to Daultabad (Devgiri) in South India. But due to non-cooperation of his public and offices, he again shifted his capital back from Daultabad to Delhi.
iii. Muhammad Tuglaq issued ‘token’ coins in brass and copper which could be exchanged for gold and silver coins. But due to not a proper government control many people started making such coins, and this scheme of token coins failed.
iv. During his period two kingdoms in Deccan- The Bahmani and the Vijayanagara Kingdoms arose and became independent kingdoms.
v. After Muhammad Tuglaq. Firoz Shah Tuglaq came to the throne and he built Yamuna Canal.
vi. He also had two of the pillars of the emperor Ashoka brought to Delhi and one of them was placed on the roof of his palace.

The Downfall of the Delhi Sultanate:- In 1398, the Turkish Chief Timur, the Lame or Tamerlane as he is sometimes called, led an army into India. He looted Delhi and killed its people. Then he returned along with looted things to Sarhar-kand. After 15 years, in 1413, the Tuglaq dynasty ended.

4. The Lodi Dynasty (1451 -1526 A.D.):-
i. Sikandar Lodi moved his capital from Delhi to a new town Agra. He founded Agra.
ii. Last ruler of this dynasty was Ibrahim Lodhi. Finally Babar, the king of Kabul succeeded in overthrowing Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and established Mugal dynasty in India. Lodi kings were Afghans.
The New Kingdoms of South (Vijayanagara and Bahmani Kingdoms):-
1. Bahmani kingdom was founded by a man called Hasan Gangu, (Bahaman Shah) who worked as an officer under the Muhammad-bin-Tuglaq.
2. Vijaynagar kingdom was founded by two brothers Harihara and Bukka of Sangam Dynasty. They made Hastinavati (Modern Hampi) their capital.
3. Bahamani & Vijaynagara both were always at war
4. Krishnadev Rai was the most able ruler of Vijayanagara kingdom. He was a scholar of Sanskrit and Telgu. These states of Deccan (Ahamadnagara, Golkunda and Bijapur) jointly defeated in 1565 in the battle of Talikota. This battle brought the end of Vijayanagara kingdom.

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Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS: The Delhi Sultanate(1206-1526)
The Delhi Sultanate(1206-1526)
Clear CTET - Coaching Institute for CTET, DSSSB and KVS
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