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The Coming of the Mughals and The Europeans:

Babar:-
1. Babar was the descendant of Timur (Turk). He founded Mughal empire in India.
2. In 1526, in the first battle of Panipat Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. Part Of the reason why he was successful was that he had brought artillery from Central Asia and had better trained cavalry and adopted TULGAMA System. He died in 1530. He wrote his autobiography (Tuju-ke-Babari) in Turkish. Babar enjoyed playing polo.

Humayun:- After the death of Babar, his son Humayun became the emperor of Delhi. He was defeated by Afghan King Sher Shah (Farid) in the battle of Chausa (Kannauj) in 1539 and in the battle of Bilgram in 1540. Humayun had to leave India and go to Persia. During this period of embarrassment his son Akbar was born in Amarkot in 1542, who later became the great emperor. Humayun’s tomb is in Delhi which was built by his wife Hazi Begum.

Sher Shah Suri(1540-1545 A.D.):-
1. His real name was Farid. But he was given the name ‘Sher’ after he had killed a tiger. He organised a strong army and defeated Humayun and then proclaimed himself an independent king. Sher Shah built roads and the roads were lined with shady trees and there were rest houses (sarais) for the tired travellers and got the land measured. The main highway Grand Trunk Road which had first been built by Chandragupta Maurya was rebuilt by Sher Shah Suri.
2. Sher Shah issued a silver coin called the Rupia. He could reign only for five years. He was killed in 1545 during the seige of Kalinjar when a gun burst on his face.
3. The sudden death of Sher Shah proved a blessing for Humayun. He regain his throne in 1555 A.D. attacking India. But hardly after six months he slipped from the stairs in Purana Quilla and died.

The arrival of Europeans:-
1. The Portuguese were the first Europeans who arrived in 1498 by ships Calicut (Kerala) on the west coast of India in the leadership of Vasco da Gama for the purpose of trade. They came through around the southern tip of Africa (The Cape of Good Hope). They made Goa, their settlement. They captured Goa from Golkunda in 1510. Goa got freedom in 1961 from Portuguese.
2. Marco Polo, who came from Venice visited South India. Nikitin came from Russia and travelled also in South India.
3. The Portuguese had their first aim to take away the trade of spices from the Arab traders. But except trade they had the other motive to convert as many Indians as possible to the Roman Catholic form of Christianity.

Akbar:
1. Akbar was only fourteen in 1556 when his father Humayun died and he was proclaimed the king. He wasilliterate.
2. Bairam Khan became the regent.
3. Akbar’s first conflict came with Hemu (the general of one of the Afghan Princes) in the second battle of Panipat in 1556. Bairam Khan fought the battle in form of Akbar’s Guardian and defeated Hemu.
4. He built new city ‘Fatehpur Sikri’ near Agra as his capital. On the occasion of Gujrat victory, he built world’s biggest door, the Buland Darwaza.
5. Mansabdari system introduced by Akbar was the most important feature of Mugal administration. .
6 The land settlement was performed by his finance minister Raja Todarmal.
7 Abul Fazl wrote a book, Akbamama (the life of Akbar) of which a section is the famous Ain-i-Akbari.
8. The official language of the Mughal empire was Persian. The entire text of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana was translated into Persian from Sanskrit.
9. In the same period Tulsidas wrote, the story of Ramayana and called it the Ramacharitamanas. The famous singer Tansen was in the court of Akbar. He composed many ra,gas. But most popular of these was the Raga Darbari, which Tansen composed especially for Akbar.
10. Fatehpur Sikri was the place where Sufi saint Salim Chisti lived, Akbar had great respect for him.
11. Akbar suggested a new religious path Din-i-Ilahi based on the common truths of all religions. But this new religion could not go ahead.
12. Akbar strongly disapproved of women becoming Satis.
13. Akbar died in 1605. He was buried in a Tomb which he had started building for himself at Sikandra near Agra.
14. Akbar adopted a ‘policy of peaceful co-existence’ namely “Sulahkul” like that of Ashoka.

Jahangir:-
1. On the death of Akbar in 1605, Jahangir became king. He wrote his autobiography. ‘The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri’ in Persian.
2. During Jahangir’s reign the English king sent his ambassador; Sir Thomas Roe, to the court at Agra.
3. Jahangir loved justice. So he had a long golden chain of justice on the wall of his palace.
4. He was fond of paintings. He himself was a great painter.

Shah Jahan:-
1. Shah Jahan succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Jahangir.
2. Shah Jahan’built a new city as his capital, the city of Shahjahanabad. When Shahjahan fell ill, his son Aurangazeb kept his father a prisoner at the fort of Agra and became the emperor, he also killed his three brothers.
3. His period is known as the ‘golden period’ in the field of architecture so far as the whole Mugal period is concerned. He built a Taj Mahal, a famous tomb of Mumtaz Mahal at Agra. Later the torn of Shah Jahan was also built there. He also built Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi.
4. He built a Peacock Throne in Red Fort. The Peacock Throne was a golden, jewel studded throne which was looted by Iranian ruler NadirShah and taken to Iran in 1739. He also looted Kohinoor Diamond.
5. Shah Jahan died while in Jail in 1666.

Aurangzeb and his successors:-
1. Aurangzeb successfully defeated his all three brothers and kept his father as prisoner in 1658 and claimed the throne. He had a long reign lasting almost fifty years. The empire was at its largest under Aurangzeb and he ruled over nearly the whole of India. He annexed the kingdoms of Golconda and Bijapur.
2. Aurangzeb interfered in the matters of Sikhs and ordered the execution of Guru Teg Bahadur at Chand Chowk in Delhi.
3. The British established there first factory at Surat.
4. During this period, Surdas was a blind poet of Sheehi (Vallabhgharh), whose Sur Sagar recited to this day
5. Raskhan, a Muslim nobleman whose poems on the life of Krishna are known as Prem Vatika. The Satsai of Bihari was related to the same period.
7. The Mughal period of Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb is known as ‘the age of magnificence’
8. Aurangzeb restarted taking Zazia from Hindu which was abolished by Akbar. He started mining HinduTemples.
9. The downfall of Mugal started during the period of Aurangzeb.
10. The Saiyad brothers were known as King makers.
11. Last Mugal emperor was Bahadur Shah II (Bahadur Shah Jafar).
12. During the period of Aurangzeb, the ruler of Amer, Raja Swai Jai Singh built 5 planetariums in Jaipur, Delhi, Banaras, Ujjain and Mathura. He was a famous Astronomer.

The Marathas:-
1. The Marathas, in the Deccan in Maharashtra established their kingdom during the period of Aurangzeb under the leadership of Shivaji defying the authority of Mugal Empire. The Marathas used the tactics of guerilla war fare. Shivaji was the most powerful of the Maratha Chiefs.
2. Aurangzeb sent Rajput king Jai Sing to Deccan to deal with Shivaji. Shivaji was persuaded by Jai Singh to go to Aurangzeb’s court. But Aurangzeb imprisoned Shivaji. But Shivaji was clear and escaped. He declared himself the independent ruler of the Maratha kingdom, Raigarh. He got the title of Chhtrapati.
3. Marathas had Formed a council of eight ministers-the Ashtapradhan. It’s chief was called Peshwa.
4. From those living outside the Maratha Kingdom, the Maratha government levied the tax called Chauth (One fourth part of the revenue). This was a tax which the Marathas took in return for promising not to plunder and raid their territory. The other tax was the Sardeshmukhi (which was an additional one tenth). This was the additional burden, the peasants who living outside the Maratha kingdom had to bear.

The Europeans Trading Companies in India :-
1. First, the Portuguese trading Companies arrived in India and then the Dutch (Holland) arrived second succeeded by the French & the English.
2. The English established the East India company in London in 1600 during the period of the Queen Elizabeth. The English started their first factory in Surat (Gujarat).
3. In 1664 a new Europeans Company from France arrived in India for trade. She set her settlement in Pondichery near Madras. Pondichery was the same place where in ancient period, Arichmedu was the trade center of Rome. Pondichery got freedom from in 1954 from the French.

The Sikhs:-
1. The Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak. There have been ten gurus of Sikhs.
2. Aurangzeb ordered the execution of Guru Teg Bahadur.

3. Guru Govind Singh was the 10th and the last Guru of Sikhs. He ordered to adopt the religious book of Sikhs Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru of Sikhs after his own death. He started Khalsa Panth for Sikhs.

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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: The Coming of the Mughals and The Europeans
The Coming of the Mughals and The Europeans
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