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What is Memory?

Rybum- “The power that we have to store our experiences and to bring them into the field of consciousness some time after the experiences have occured, is termed memory.”


Process of Memory :- The process of memory can be divided into the following steps or stages:
1. Learning, 2. Retention, 3. Recall, 4. Recognition


1. Learning :- “For efficient memory, effective learning is half the battle. One must do more than get acquainted with the principles of effective learning.
2. Retention :- Retention is a very important element in memory. The experiences acquired by the learner leave some impressions or Engrams on the mind. These impressions are not easily destroyed, these engrams remain in the conscious mind for a certain period, and then they are transferred to the unconscious mind. When it becomes necessary to remember or recall some fact, these engrams become fresh, or rise to the conscious level of mind once again.
3. Recall :- The term ‘recall’ is used for the process whereby past experiences are brought back into the conscious mind. Through this process, the experiences learnt earlier and retained in the mind can be put to use as and when required. At this point, it should be clearly understood that the facts which are not clearly and properly retained, are also recalled with difficulty.
4. Recognition - It often happens that we fail to recognise a person whom we have met once before, but when that person relates how, when and under what circumstances we had met before, some facts, events and subjects connected with that situation and that person come back to our mind, and then gradually, an image of that person emerges upon our mental screen. When this image reaches a certain clarity, the activity of recognition can be said to be complete, and in this way, we become linked with that past experience. Hence, it can be said that the term ‘recognition1 means ‘consciousness of familiarity’. In a sense, recognition grants completion or perfection to the process of memory when it occurs after learning, retention and recall.


Recognition, then, is the ability which indicates to us mat a particular individual, picture, word or any other object or material has been met or experienced in the past. As compared to recall, the process of recognition is passive and slow.
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DSSSB, CTET & KVS Exam Preparation | Clear CTET: Memory and Forgetting
Memory and Forgetting
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