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ANALOGIES

TABLE  OF CONTENTS:


THEORY

Objective of the session:


  • To make students aware of the importance of vocabulary, which is of utmost   importance to determine the relationship between words
  • To familiarize students with the ways in which a relationship can be determined  between the words
ANALOGIES: 'Analogy" is a term that means "word relationships." Analogies are like a word puzzle. Solving analogies helps you develop critical thinking skills. In these types of questions, a pair of words is given which bear a certain relationship and you have to find a pair that is similar or dissimilar to the given pair. An example is given below to make it clear for you to understand:
SQUARE : CUBE : : CIRCLE : ?
(a) round                    (b) ball                            (c) pi                      (d) sphere
The cube is 3D form of a square: therefore, the answer would be [d], sphere, as it is 3D form of circle.
Analogies can be based on various relationships. Few of them are listed below:
1. Part and Whole
Toe : Foot
Toe is a part of foot.
2. Cause and Effect
Wind : Blow
It blows when the wind flows.
3. Action and Significance
Yawn : sleepy
You yawn when you feel sleepy.
4. Worker and Tool
Doctor : Stethoscope
A doctor uses stethoscope while treating patients.
5. Worker and article created
Composer : Symphony
A composer creates a symphony
6. Degrees of Difference
Famished : ravenous
When one is extremely hungry or famished, one is ravenous.
7. Tool and Action
Needle : sew
A needle is used to sew.
8. Common Association
Soldier : Bravery
A soldier symbolizes bravery.
9. Opposites
Open : Close
Open and close are opposites
10. Synonyms
Kind : Benevolent
Kind and benevolent mean the same
11. Individual and Class
Elephants : Mammals
An Elephant is a mammal.
12. Male : Female
Horse : Mare
The female counterpart of a horse is called a Mare.
13. Young : Adult
Cub : Lion
The young one of a lion is called a cub.
14. Worker : Workplace
Doctor : Hospital
A doctor works in a hospital.
15. Single : Group
Beauty : Bevy
A group of beauties is called a bevy
16. Class: Species
Furniture : Chair
Chair is a part of wider set: Furniture
17. Symbol: What it stands for
Flag: Nation
Flag is symbol of a nation and represents it
18. Person: Thing sought by person
Alchemist : Gold
An alchemist is on a look out of gold and creates it
19. Characteristic-related
Cow : Herbivorous
Cow is a herbivorous animal. It is a common characteristic
20. Time: Sequence
Early: Late
Time sequence refers to relation on the basis of what happens at different points in time
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Following are the few solved examples to make the concept of anagrams clearer:
These questions require you to choose the option which bears a similar relationship as that expressed in the pair given in the questions.
1. Brush : Teeth : : ?
(a) Dry : Hair     (b) Wear : Trouser     (c) Eat : Apple     (d) Polish : Shoes
As brush is used to clean teeth, therefore, it indicates the relationship of cleaning something, hence, among the options, [d] is correct, as polish is used to clean shoes.
2. Horse : Stable : : ?
(a) Fish : Water         (b) Lion : Lair            (c) Dog : Kennel       (d) Mare : Money
A tile is a man- made house for the horses. Similarly, a kennel is also a man- made house for the dogs. therefore, the answer is [c], as the rest of the options are natural habitat of the animals.
3. Loneliness : Privacy :: ?
(a) Passion : Apathy                               (b) Composure : Equanimity
(c) E:estiny : Fanciful                              (d) IIIusory : Unpredictable
LoneIiness comes from privacy both have to do with being alone. Similarly, composure comes from equanimity. which means mental stability or composure especially under tension or strain. Hence, option [b]
4. Authur :Manusript ?
(a) Architect : Blueprint                  (b) Engineer : Bridge
(c) Optician : Spectacles               (d) Doctor : Stethoscope
Manuscript is the original text of an author's work, handwritten or now usually typed, that is submitted to a publisher. Similarly, blueprint is the draft of the design that an architect creates before submitting it to the client. Hence option [a]
5. Extract: "Tooth :: ?
(a) Cut: Nail      (b) Uproot: Stump    (c) Pull Out: Pin       (d) Saw: Wood
A tooth that has gone bad or has decayed is extracted. Stump is the lower end of a tree or plant left after the main part falls or is cut off. The way a tooth is extracted, a stump is uprooted. Hence, option [b]
6. Harm : Damage :: ?
(a) Sweet: Sour   (b) Stout: Weak   (c) Injure : Incapacitate   (d) Hook : Crook
Both words mean to affect a person or thing in such a way as to lessen health, strength, value, beauty etc. Similarly, 'injure' means 'hurt' and 'incapacitate' intensifies the meaning of 'injure' and can be termed as synonyms. Hence, option [c]
7. Contradict: Contravene :: ?
(a)Deny:Refute                                        (b)Confuse:Satisfy
(c)Compensate:Damage                       (d)Profane:Vulgarity
The words 'contradict' and 'contravene' refer to the rejection of a previous statement by argument or evidence, whereas 'deny' or 'refute' refer to something refused or withheld. Hence, option [a]
8. Biased : Partial:: ?
(a) Partisan:Prejudiced   (b) Built-in:Included    (c) Axle:Wheel  (d) Learning:Yield
Biased and partial refer to a lack of fairness in judging or reporting because of the favoritism given to one way of viewing the subject. Similarly, partisan means supporter of a person, group, party, or cause, esp. a person who shows a biased, emotional allegiance. Hence, [a]
9. Blurred : Confused :: ?
            (a) Dangerous : Adequate                       (b) Scam : Clarity
            (c) Abatement : Significant                      (d) Muddled : Unclear
Blurred refers to something that is unclear and confused means when there is no clarity. By the logic of these words, being almost synonymous, muddled and unclear is the closest option. Hence, [d]
10. Depreciate : Credit:: ?
            (a) Bait: Heckle                        (b) Enhance : Disparage
            (c) Unfair : Biased                   (d) Discourage: Force
'Depreciate' refers to diminishing the worth of something whereas 'credit' is opposite in meaning. Similarly, 'enhance' means to 'heighten' or 'intensify', whereas 'disparage' refers to an effort to make something without worth or value. Hence, the pair of these words are opposite in meaning. Hence, option [b]
In these questions, your entire knowledge of the language is checked. Right from vocabulary to grammar rules to idioms and idiomatic usage, everything can be tested. This chapter is aimed at giving you a practice dose of what type of fill in the blank questions are asked:  
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