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Overview of English Grammar

TABLE  OF CONTENTS:

THEORY

I. PARTS OF SPEECH

Knowing parts of speech gives you a basic vocabulary for identifying words and understanding how a language works. We will try and explain the noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. As you use this material, be aware that no part of speech exists in a vacuum. To identify a word's Part of speech correctly, see how the word functions in the sentence you are analyzing. Often, the same word functions differently in different sentences.
We ate fish. [Fish is a noun. It names a thing.]
 We fish on weekends. [Fish is a verb. It names an action.]

1 .1 Recognizing nouns

A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea: student, college, textbook, education. Nouns function as SUBJECTS, OBJECTS, and COMPLEMENTS.

i)     Words that often appear with nouns tell how much or many, whose, which one, and similar information. These words include articles (a, an, the) and other determiners or limiting adjectives.
ii)     ii) Sometimes a suffix (a word ending) can help you identify the part of speech.

NOUNS-TYPES
TYPE
PURPOSE
EXAMPLE
Proper
Specific people, places, or things ( first letter is always capitalized)
John Lennon, Paris, Buick
CMMON
General groups, places, people, or things
Singer, city, automobile
CONCRETE
Things experienced through  the sense: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch
Landscape, pizza, thunder
ABSTRACT
Things not knowable through the senses
Freedom, shyness
COLLECTIVE
Groups
Family, team
NONCOUNT OR MASS
“uncountable” things
Water, time
COUNT
Countable items
Lake, minute


1.2 Recognizing pronouns

A pronoun takes the place of a NOUN. The word (or words) a pronoun replaces is called its antecedent.
Some pronouns have three different forms, known as cases: subjective case, objective case and possessive case.
David is an accountant. [Noun]
 He is an accountant. [Pronoun]
 The finance committee needs to consult him. [The pronoun "him" refers to its antecedent, David.] 

PRONOUNS
PERSONAL
I, you, they, her, its, ours, and others
Refers to people or things
I saw her take a book to them
RELATIVE
Who, which, that
Introduces certain NOUN CLAUSES and ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
The book that I lost v valuable.
INTERROGATIVE
 Who, whose, what, which, and others
Introduces a question
Who called?
DEMONSTRATIVE
This, these, that, those
Points out the ANTECEDENT
Whose books are these?
REFLEXIVE; INTENSIVE
Myself, themselves, and other- self or selves words
Reflects back to the antecedent; intensifies the antecedent
They claim to support themselves.
I myself doubt. It.
RECIPROCAL
Each other, one another
Refers to individual parts of a plural antecedent
Everyone is welcome here.
INDEFINITE
All, anyone, each, and others
Refers to nonspecific persons or things
Everyone is welcome here.


1.3 Recognizing verbs

Main verb express action, occurrence, or state of being
I dance. [Action]
The audience became silent. [Occurrence]
 Your dancing was excellent. [State of being]
Procedure to be followed 
 If you are not sure whether a word is a verb, try putting the word into a different tense. If the sentence I still makes sense, the word is a verb.
He is a changed man.
He is a will change man. [The sentence does not make sense when the verb will change is substituted, so changed is not functioning as a verb.]
 The store changed owners. The store will change owners. [Because the sentence still makes sense when the verb will change is substituted, changed is functioning as a verb.] •
Recognizing verbals
Verbals are verb parts functioning as NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, or ADVERBS.

VERBALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

INFINITIVE: To + SIMPLE FORM of VERB
I. NOUN
2. ADJECTIVE or ADVERB
To eat now is inconvenient.
GERUND: -ing form of verb
NOUN
Eating in turnpike restaurants can be an adventure.
PAST PARTICIPLE: -ed form of REGULAR VERB or equivalent in IRRGULAR VERB
ADJECTIVE
Boiled, filtered water is usually safe tc drink.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE: -ing form of verb
I. NOUN 2. ADJECTIVE
Hiking gear is expensive Hiking is healthy


1.4 Recoganizing adjectives

Adjectives modify-that is, they describe or limit ----Nouns ,pronouns and word group that function as noun
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
I saw a green tree
Green modify the noun free
It was leafy
Leafy modifies the pronoun it .
The flowering trees beautiful .
Beautiful modifies the noun phrase the following trees .
Descriptive adjectives ,like leafy and green ,can show levels of intensity green greener ,greenest ;leafy ,more leafy .Proper adjectives are formed from PROPER NOUNS  American ,Victorian
Note usually ,words with these suffixes are adjectives :-ful,-ish,-less ,and like
Determiners (Limiting adjectives ) 

ARTICLES a ,an, the
A reporter working on an assignment is using the telephone
DEMONSTRATIVE  this these ,that ,those
Those students rent that house .
IDEFINITE any each, few, other, some and others
Few films today have complex plots
INTERROGATIVE what ,which whose
What answer did you give ?
NUMERICAL one ,first ,two, second ,and others
The fifth question was tricky
POSSESSIVE my ,your, their and others
My violin is older the your cello
RELATIVE  what ,which, whose ,whatever and others
We do not know which road to take

The determiners “a, an” and “ the also called articles .”The” is a define article .Before a noun ,”The conveys that the noun refers to specific item (the plan) “ A “ and “ An” are indefinite articles .They convey that a noun refers to an item in a nonspecific or general way (a plan) when you chose between “ a” and “ an” remember to use “a” when the word following it starts with a consonant sound : a carrort ,a broken egg,a hip use “an” when the word following is starts with a vowel sound : an egg, an old carrot ,an  honor. Some words in the chart also functions as pronouns .To identify a word’s part of speech she how if function in a sentence
The car belongs to Harold [That =demonstrative adjective ]
                                          [That =Demonstrative pronoun]   

1.5 RECOGNIZING ADVERBS

An adverbs modifies –that is ,describes or limits –VERBS, Adjectives ,other adverbs ,and entire sentence for detail discussion of adverbs 
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
Chefs plan meals carefully .
Carefully  modify the verb plan
Vegetables provide very important vitamins
Very modifies the adjective important  .
Those potato chips are too heavily salted
Too  modifies the  adverb heavily .
Fortunately ,people are learning that salt can be harmful
Fortunately modifies the entire sentence .
Many adverb are easy to recognize because they are formed by adding –ly to adjective ;saidly loudly and normally .Some adjectives ,however ,end in –ly : brotherly ,lovely .Also many adverb to do not end in –ly very much, always ,not yesterday, so and well are a few that do not .
Descriptive  adverb be can show level of intensity ,usually by adding more or (less)and most or (least ) more happily least clearly .
Conjunctive adverbs modify by creating logical connections in meaning as show below .Conjunctive adverbs can appear in the first position of a sentence ,in the middle of a sentence ,or in the position of a sentence .
Therefore ,we consider lsaac Newton an important scientist
We consider lsaac Newton, therefore , an important scientist
We consider lsaac Newton an important scientist, therefore


1.6 RECOGNIZING PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions include common words such in ,under by ,after ,to, on, over and since Prepositions function with other words in prepositional phrases ,Prepositional phrases often setout relationships in time or space in April ,under the orange umbrella ,
In the fall we will hear a concert by our favorite tenor
After the concert ,he will fly to paris
Some words that function as prepositions also function as other parts of speech to check whether a word is a preposition ,see how it functions in the sentence
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
The mountain climbers have not radioed in science yesterday
Preposition 
Since they have left the base camp ,the mountain climbers can communicate with us only by radio
Suborning conjunction
At first ,I was not worried ,but I have since changed may mind 
Adverb


1.7 RECOGNIZING CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction connects words PHRASES or CLAUSES.
Coordinating conjunctions, listed herein join two or more grammatically equivalent structures
We hike and camp every summer [“And” “joins

SUBORDINATING CONJPS THEY CONJUNCTIONS AND THE RELATIOSHIPS THEY EXPRESS
RELATIONSHIP
WORD
Time
After, before, once, since, until , when, whenever, while
Reason or cause
As, because, since
Condition
If, even if, provide that, unless
Contrast
Although, even, though, whereas
Location
Where, wherever
Choice
Rather than, than, whether,
Result or cause
As, because, since


Recognizing interjections    

An interjection is a word or expression that conveys surprise or another strong emotion. Along, an interjection is usually punctuated with an exclamation point (!) as part of a sentence; an interjection is set off by a comma (or commas). In academic writing, use interjections sparingly, if at all.
Hooray! Got the promotion.
Oh, they are late.

2. STRUCTURES OF THE SENTENCE           

 When you know how sentences are formed, you have one tool for understanding the art of    writing.
2.1 Defining the sentence
The sentence has several definitions, each of which views if from a different perspective. On its most mechanical level, a sentence starts with a capital letter and finishes with a period, question mark, or exclamation point. A sentence can be defined according to its purpose.
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
Declarative sentences make a statement
Sky diving is dangerous.
Interrogative sentences ask a question
Is sky diving dangerous?
Imperative sentences give a command
Be careful when you skydive.
Exclamatory sentences begin with what or How and express strong feeling
Wow I love sky diving!

Grammatically, sentence contains an independent. Clause (a group of word that can stand alone as an independent unit): Sky diving is dangerous. Sometimes a sentence is described as a “complete thought, “but an indianite variety of sentences can be composed, but all sentences share a common foundation.

2.2 Recognizing subjects and predicates

A sentence consists of two basic parts: a subject and a predicate.
SENTENCE PATTERNS : GROUP –I
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPETE SUBJECT
The red telephone                                                              Rang loudly


SIMPLE SUBJECT                                                                   SIMPLE PREDICATE (Verb)                         
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPLETE PREDICATE 
The  telephone and doorbell                                           Rang loudly


COMPOUND SUBJECT                                                   
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPLETE PREDICATE 
The   red telephone                                    Rang and started everyone in the room


                                                                              COMPLETE PREDICATE
COMPLETE PREDICATE
The simple subject is the word or group of word that acts ,is described ,or is acted upon .
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
The telephone rang
Simple subject, telephone ,acts
The telephone is red
Simple subject, telephone is described
The telephone was being connected
Simple subject, telephone is acted upon
The complete subject to the simple subject and modifiers (all the words that describe or limit it ) The  red telephone range

a compound subject consists of two or more NOUNS or PRONOUNS and their modifies : The telephone and the doorbell range .
The predicate is the part of the sentence that contains the VERB
The predicate tells where that the subject is doing or experiencing or what is being done to the subject .
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
The telephone rang
Range tells what the subject ,telephone did
The telephone is red
Is tells what the subject telephone ,experiences
The telephone was being connected
Was being connected tells what was being done to the subject ,telephone

A simple predicate contains only the verb .The lawyer listened .A complete predicate contains the verb and its modifies .The lawyer listened carefully .A compound predicate contains two or more verbs : The lawyer listened and waited .
1.    In sentence that make a statement ,the subject usually comes before the predicate .In sentences that ask a question ,part of the predicate usually comes before the subject .   
2.    Avoid repeating a subject with a personal pronoun in the same clause
      NO    My grandfather, he lived to be eighty seven .
YES   My grandfather,  lived to be eighty seven
NO    winter storms that bring ice ,sleet and show the can cause traffic problems
YES  winter storms that bring ice ,sleet and snow  can cause traffic problems
Recognizing direct and indirect objects
Direct objects and indirect objects occur in the PREDICATE of sentence
A direct object receives that action –it completes the meaning of a TRANSITIVE VERB .To find a direct object make up a whom ? or what Question about the verb
An indirect object answer “ To whom” ,” For whom”,” To what”? or “ For what” type questions about the verb and show the relationships of direct and indirect object in sentences

SENTENCE PATTERNS : GROUP –II
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPETE SUBJECT
The red  caller                                                                     offered     money  
                                                                                                  VERB   DIRECT OBJECT                                  
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPLETE PREDICATE 
The  caller                                                                     offered the   lawyer    money


                                                                                                                                                                                   VERB       INDIRECT    DIRECT
                                                                                           OBJECT     OBJECT    OBJECT       
COMPETE SUBJECT                        +                    COMPLETE PREDICATE 
The   red telephone                                                  offered   money to the lawyer


                                                                             
                                                                                       VERB       DIRECT       INDIRECT
                                                                                       OBJECT         OBJECT    OBJECT

2.3 Recognizing phrases

A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain both a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE. A phrase cannot stand alone as an independent unit. Phrases function as parts of speech. A noun phrases functions as a NOUN in a sentence.
The modern population census dates back to the seventeenth century.
A verb phrase functions as a VERB in a sentence.
Two military censuses are mentioned in the Bible,
The Romans had been conducting censuses every five years to establish tax liabilities.
A prepositional phrase always starts with a PREPOSITION and functions as a MODIFIER.
After the collapse, Rome censuses were discontinued until modern times. [“After the collapse”, “of Rome’, “and until modern times “are all prepositional phrases.]
William, the Conqueror, conducted a census of landowners in newly conquered England in 1086. [Three prepositional phrases in a row beginning with of, in, in]
An absolute phrase usually contains a noun or PRONOUN and a PARTICIPLE. It modifies the entire sentence to which it is attached.
Censuses being the fashion, Quebec and Nowa Scotia took sixteen counts between 1665 and 1754. Eighteenth-century Sweden and Denmark had complete records of their population, each adult and child having been accounted for.
A verbal phrase is a word group that contains a verbal. Verbals are INFINITIVES, PRESENT PARTICIPLES, and PAST PARTICIPLES. Infinitive phrases function as nouns or modifiers. An infinitive is the SIMPLE FORM of a verb, usually preceded by the word to Participial phrases function as ADJECTIVES. Participial phrases can be formed from a verb’s present participle (its-ing form) and its past participle (the-ed form of a regular verb or the irregular form).

SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
In 1624, Virginia began to count its citizens in a census.
Infinitive phrase= direct object
Going from door, census takers interview millions of people.
Participial phrase=adjective modifying census takers
Amazed by some people’s answers, the census takers always listen carefully.
Participial phrase= adjective modifying  census takers

Gerund phrases function as nouns. Telling the difference between a gerund phrase and a participial phrase using a present participle can be tricky because both use the –ing verb form. The key is to determine how the verbal phrase is functioning; a gerund phrase functions only as a noun, and a participial phrase functions only as a modifier.

SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
Including each person in the census was important.
Gerund phrase=noun used the subject.
Including each person in the census, Abby spent many hours on the crowded city block.
Participial phrase= modifier used as adjective describing Abby

2.4 Recognizing clauses 

A clause is a group of words that words that contains a SUBJECT         and a PREDICATE. Clauses are divided into two categories: independent clause (also known as main clause) and dependent clause (also known as subordinate clauses).
Recognizing independent clauses
Independent clauses

An independent clause contains a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE.  It can stand alone as a sentence because it is an independent unit.

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