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Word Power & Vocabulary
TABLE  OF CONTENTS:



Objective of this chapter:


Ø  Understand the need and importance of having a good command over the language
Ø  How to build up vocabulary consistently and effectively , thought
Ø  Roots, prefixes, and suffixes
Ø  Etymological concepts
Understand relations between words and how that can aid in improving vocabulary










The purpose of vocabulary

Words are great subjects to investigate. When you become a student of language, take delight in discovering word relationships, and become aware of how you can make words work for you, you are more likely to stop when you encounter an unfamiliar word and consider its meaning. If you do this, you will become a master of words and you vocabulary will grow. You must develop strategies to conquer unfamiliar words when you find them in you textbooks and in your learning to make words work for you.

Why vocabulary Development Counts
Ø  Vocabulary is a basic part of reading comprehension .If you do not know enough words, you are going to have trouble in understanding what you read. An occasional word may not stop you, but if there are too many words you don’t know, comprehension will suffer,. When the content of textbooks is often challenging enough, you do not want to work on understanding the words that express that content.
Ø  Vocabulary is a major part of almost every standardized test, including reading achievement tests, college entrance exams, and armed forces and vocational placement tests. Vocabulary is a key measure of both one’s learning and one’s ability to learn. The more words you know, the better you are likely to do on such important tests.
Ø  Studies have indicated that students with strong vocabularies are more successful in school and that a good vocabulary is an influential factor for people who enjoy successful careers in life. Words are the tools not just of better reading, but of better writing, speaking, listening and thinking as well. The more words you have on the people around you.
Ø  In today’s world, a good vocabulary counts more than ever. Many jobs provide services or process information, and the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are essential. The keys to survival and success in the workplace are the abilities to communicate skilfully and learn quickly. A solid vocabulary is essential for both of these skills.
Improving your vocabulary
Throughout your college years, new words will be flooding into you consciousness. Many of them are the keys to ideals and information that will be new to you. When students have trouble in a course, the trouble can often be traced back to their imperfect comprehension of terms that are essential to an understanding of subject matter. A first -year science or social science course may introduce you to almost as many new word as first course in a foreign language. Then there are also words which may not literally be new to you, but which have specific meaning within the context of a specific course and therefore must be learned as if they were new words.
Using a Dictionary
One of the best ways to learn new a word is to keep p a good dictionary close to you elbows and use it. Sometimes, you can get some idea of the meaning of a new word from - how it is used in you reading material. Use context when you can, but he aware that it has its limitations. According to lee Dighton of Columbia University, using context has the following three limitations:
1. Context provides only the meaning that fits that particular situation.
2. You often end up with synonyms, which is not quite the same definition.
3. When you have to infer the meaning of a word, you can be slight (or greatly) in error.

Your safest bet is to avoid all the guesswork and go straight your dictionary. As you study, consult your dictionary whenever you come to a word that doesn’t know precisely. Find the exact meaning you need; then go back to your textbook and reread the paragraph, with the meaning substituted for the word. If you become interested in a particular word, write it on a 3*5 card, late, go back to the dictionary and investigate it. Write its meanings on the card, and keep the card and other like cards to look through and study occasionally. But don’t break into your studying for a long session with the dictionary; save that for later.
Follow the example of thousands of successful people. Get yourself a pocket dictionary, and always carry it with you. Its definitions will be terse, consisting mainly of synonyms, but its value lies in its ability to spark a lifelong interest in words as well as increase your vocabulary. Of course, a pocket dictionary is no substitute for a larger, desk-size dictionary; but as a portable learning tool, the pocket dictionary is worth at least its weight in gold.
Interpreting a Dictionary Entry
A typical dictionary entry includes these parts:
1.    The word or phrase broken into syllables.
2.    The word or phrase with the pronunciation indicated through these of diacritical marks- marks that indicate the vowel sounds such as a long vowel or a vowel affected by other sound; accent marks, a mark called the schwa that tells you that vowel is in an unaccented syllable of the word.
3.    The part or parts of speech the word function that as-for example as a noun (n). Verb(v), adjective (adj), or adverb(adv)
4.    Related forms of the word, such as th plural form of nouns and the past tense of verbs.
5.    The definition of definitions of the word or phrase. Generally dictionaries group the definitions according to a word’s use as noun, verb, adjective and\or adverb.
6.    The origin, or etymology, of the word or words, such as from the Latin, Old French, Middle English, Hebrew, the name of a person. Some dictionaries use the symbol <to mean “came form.” For example, the origin of the world flank is given as “<Old French flanc, <Germanic.”This tells us that flank came from the Old French word fanc. The French word in tun came from the German language. Some dictionaries use abbreviations to tell you where the items came from: OE for Old English, L for Latin, and so forth.
Interpret a dictionary entry using the following steps:
·        Pronounce the word in syllables using the diacritical marks as a guide.
·        Note the part or pars of speech of the word and any related words.
·        Read the definitions.
·        Check the etymological reference to see if you can find remnants of the meaning of th originating word in the meaning of h entry.
·        Use the word in a sentence that has a clue in it  as  to the meaning of the word
Etymology
            Etymology is the study of the origins of words. The English language is living is living and growing. Although many of our words have been part of our language for many years, new words are added all the time. Following are various ways our language is influenced.
·         Derived from foreign words- English, in many cases, has been commonly expanded by incorporating foreign words into it. Most of our language has ancient Anglo-Saxon or Latin origins. Other language has also added to our vocabularies.

Additions through Technology & Products- Our words often reflect current interests, trends, and innovations. One of the most recent contributors to our language has been computer technology, which has created words such as bytes, monitor, and disk.

People’s Names- sometimes when a person invents or introduces something, that thing becomes associated with the person’s name. The person, through time, is forgotten while the name lives on in our language. Examples include:
Mesmerize-F(a) Mesmer, an Austrian doctor and hypnotist.
Sideburns-and American English alteration of burnsides, Ambrose E. Burnside, a Union general.

Words from letters- The initials for the names of things may actually come to replace the names. The initials become the words that represent the thing, concept, or group. The following are examples of words that have developed from initials.

°         TV=Tele Vision
°         DWI-Driving While Intoxicated
°         COD- cash on Delivery
°         ZIP-Zone Improvement Plan
Word Histories- Some words also have interesting histories. Learning the stories behind the meanings is a good way to learn those words. The following examples will give you an idea of how history can affect language.

°         Footman- In earlier days, it was thought to bring bad luck if a person stepped on the door threshold while entering a house. Rich people hired a servant to stand at their doors. His job was to guard against a guest’s stepping on the threshold. The guard became known as a footman.
°         Hooker- A synonyms for prostitute. The term became popular during the Civil War. The women involved were camp followers. General “Fighting joe” Hooker approved their presence in order to boost the morale of his men.
Word-Building Elements

The use of roots, stems, and prefixes suffixes for vocabulary detective work is considered valuable. For example, the word prefix, tale is combining form that means distant transmission of message over a distant transmission of message over a distance.
Therefore, you can easily decipher words such as telepathy telescope etc.

Example I: in the following example look at the prefixes, suffixes and root words because these can tell you enough about a word to help you make an intelligent choice. For example, find the antonyms of OMNISCIENT

(a)  Stupid                         (b)willing                     (c)kind                                    (d)upset

If you can recognize that the root of the word is the same as the word science you will know that the word has something to do with knowledge, and answer stupid becomes a logical choice.

Example 2: If you have no knowledge of the word at all, you can sometimes make a more or less intelligent guess by looking at the answer choices and trying to find information from them:

ANTEDILUVIAN is the synonym of:
(a)  Abundant                    (b) interested             (c) modern                 (d) ancient
Notice that ‘modern and ancient’ are antonyms. Since in examinations the paper-setter often places synonyms and antonyms among the possible answers there is a better than random chance that one of them is the correct answer. In this case the prefix ‘anti’ meaning ‘before’. Should have led you to select a word leaning to ‘after’ or ‘modern.’
Recognizing Word Roots and Prefixes
While using the dictionary is an excellent way to increase your vocabulary one word at a time, if you would like to learn whole clusters of words in one stroke, you should get to know the most common roots and prefixes in English.
It has been estimated that 60 percent of the English words in common use are made up partly or entirely of prefixes or roots derived from Latin and Greek. The value of learning prefixes and roots is that they illustrate the way much of our language is constructed. Once learned, they can help you recognize and understand many words without resorting to a dictionary. With one well-understood root word as the center, an entire “constellation” of words can be built up.
Although knowing the meanings of prefixes and roots can unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words, this knowledge should supplement, not replace, you dictionary use. Over the centuries, many prefixes have more than one meaning each.
For example, the prefix de-means “of’ or “from”; yet the dictionary lists four different meanings for it. So learn as many of the common prefixes and roots as you can, but learn them for better and more precise understanding of words you already know ad words that you have yet to look up in the dictionary. Make sure that you spend some time on the prefixes and roots that make up each word. You will soon become convinced that a word is not an assemblage of letters put together like an anagram, but the true and natural outcome of evolution.
While going through the following list, make sure you recall words using the same route and jot them down.
 Common Prefixes
Root
Meaning
Example
Definition
Agri
Field
Agronomy
Field-crop production and soil management
Ante
Before
Antebellum
Before the war
Anthrope
Man
Anthropology
The study of man
Anti
Against
Antifreeze
Liquid used to guard against freezing
Astro
Star
Astronaut
One who travels in interplanetary space
Auto
Self
automatic
Self-acting or self-regulating
Bell
War
Belligerent
Of warlike character; aggressively
Bene
Good
Benefit
An act of kindness; a gift
Bio
Life
Biology
The study of life
Cardio
Heart
Cardiac
Pertaining to the heart
Cede
Go
Precede
To go before
Chromo
Color
Chromatology
The science of colours
Circum
Around
Circumference
Length around
Contra
Against
Contradict
To speak against
Cred
Believe
Crediole
Believable
De
Reverse ,remove
Defoliate
Remove the leaves from a tree
Demos
People
Democracy
Government by the people
Derma
Skin
Epidemis
The outer layer of skin
Dict
Speak
Predict
To speak before something actually happens
Dis
Apart
Dislocate
To un-lodge
Dyna
Power
Dynamic
Characterized by power and energy
Dys
Bad
Dysfunctional
Not functioning
Ecto
Outside
Ectoparasite
Parasite living on the exterior of animals
Endo
Within
Endogamy
Marriage within the tribe
Equi
Equal
Equidistant
Equal distance
Ex-
Out
Excavate
To dig out
Extra
Beyond
Extraterrestrial
Beyond the earth
Geo
Earth
Geology
The study of the earth
Graph
Write
Autograph
Signature
Helio
Sun
Heliotrope
Any plant that turns toward the wun
Hydro
Water
Sydroponics
Growing of plants in water reinforced with nutrients
Hyper
Over
Hypertension
High blood pressure
Hypno
Sleep
Hypnosis
State of sleep induced by suggestion
Hypo-
Under
Hypontension
Low blood pressure
In-
In
Interim
In between
Inter
Between
Intervene
Come between
Intra-
Within
Intramural
Within bounds of a school
Intro-
In, into
Introspect
To look within, as one’s own mind
Ject
Throw
Eject
To throw out
Loqua
Speak
Eloquent
Someone who can speak well
Macro-
Large
Macroscopic
Large enough to be observed by the naked eye
Magni
Great, big
Magnify
To enlarge, to make bigger
Man
Hand
Manuscript
Written by hand
Micro-
Small
Microscopic
So small that one needs a microscope to observe
Mono
One
Monoplane
Airplane with one wing
Multi-
Many
Multimillionaire
One having two or more million dollars
Omni

Omniscient
One who knows everything
Ortho
Straight
Orthodox
Right, true, straight opinion
Pan
All
Pantheon
A temple dedicated to all gods
Phon
Sound
Telephone
Instrument over which sound can travel
Photo
Light
Photograph
Picture
Pod
Foot
Pseudo pod
False foot
Poly-
Many
Polygonal
Having many sides
Post-
After
Postgraduate
After graduating
Pre-
Before
Precede
To go before
Pro-
For
Proponent
A supporter
Proto-
First
Prototype
First or original model
Pseudo-
False
Pseudonym
False name; esp; an author’s pen-name
Psycho
Mind
Psychology
Study of the mind in any of its aspects
Pyro
Fire
Pyrometer
An instrument for measuring temperatures
Re-red-
Back again
Rejuvenate
To make young
Re-red-
Together
Reconnect
To put together again
Retro-
Backward
Retrospect
A looked back on things
Sanct
Holy
Sanctimonious
Hypocritically pious or devout
Script
Write
Manuscript
Hand written
Semi-
Half
Semicircle
Half a circle
Sub
Under
Submerge
To put under water
Super
Above
Superfine
Extra fine
Tele-
Far
Telescope
Seeing or viewing afar
Terra
Earth
Terrace
A raised platform of earth
Theo
Religion
Theology
Study of religious
Thermo
Heat
Thermometer
Instrument for meaning heat
Trans
Across
Transalpine
Across alps
Zoo
Animal
Zoology
The study of animals


Number prefixes
Uni-one
Tetra-four
Octa-eight
Mono-one
Quint-five
Nov-nine
Bi-two
Pent-five
Dex-ten
Duo-two
Sex-six
Lat-side
di-two
Hex-six
Ped-foot
Tri-three
Sept-seven
Pod-foot
Quad-four
Hept-seven
Centi,mili

Math & Science Affixes and Roots
Root or Affix
Example
Aqua(water)
Aquarium
Hydro(water)
HYDROPLANE
Hemi(half)
Hemisphere
Semi(half)
Semicircle
Equi (equal)
Equivalent
Root or Affix
Example
Tele(far off)
Telescope
Micro(small)
Microfilm
Onomy(science of)
Astronomy
Ology(study of)
Geology
Centi(hundred)
Centimetre
Milli(thousand)
Millimetre
Bio(life)
Biology
Astro(star)
Astronaut
Thermo(heat)
Thermodynamic
Meter(measure)
Diameter
Ped(foot)
Pedestrian
Pod(foot)
Tripod

Prefixes that mean “no”: a-de-dis-,in-non-un-,contra
Example: disqualify, nondescript, unscrupulous, contradict, inadvertent
Prefix
Meaning
Examples
a-,an-
Without, not
Asexual, atypical, amoral, anarchy
De-
Reverse action, away
Defrost, demystify, desensitize, deduct
Dis-, dif-, di-
Not, apart
Dissatisfied, disorganized, different, divert
In-,il-,it-,im-
Not
Inappropriate, invisible, illegal, impossible
Non-
Not
Non-productive, nonessential, nonsense
Un-
Not
unlikely, unnoticeable, unreliable
Contra-,counter-
Against
Contrary, contradict, counterproductive
Prefixes that indicate “when,”  “where, “or “more”: pre-, post-, ante-, inter- infra-, traps-, sub-, circum-, ultra
Examples: premature, postscript, anteroom, intervene, transformation

Prefix
Meaning
Examples
Pre-,pro
Before
Pre-dinner, preliminary, previous, prologue
Post
After
Post war, postoperative, postpone
Ante
Before
Antecedent, antechamber
Inter
Between, among
Interstate, intercept, interfere
Intra
 Within
Intramural, intrastate, intravenous
Trans
Across
Transcontinental, transparent, transaction
Sub
Under
Submarine, submerge, subjugate
Circum
Around
Circumnavigate, circumference
Ultra
Beyond, on the far side of, excessive
Ultrasonic, ultraviolet, ultraconservative


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